Channel: Taimiyyah Zubair
An-Nur 1-10 Word Analysis and Tafsir 1-2
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I was a bit of a malicious on your agenda smilla rahmanir rahim
lesson number 176 Sora. To know, I am number one to 10.
A news, a new means light. And this surah is named a new because it is mentioned the ayah to know the verse of light in which is the example of the new of Allah soprano.
And in this order, many akam are given, many commands have been given, which are with regards to social life in particular. And if you look at it these commands, what do they do? They enlightened the path to the good collective life of believers.
And just as light is essential for life seminary, the Afghan that are given in this era, they're also essential for a good society to survive, for a society to live in peace and harmony.
The source Surah Al Baqarah Surah Nisa certainiy, De Soto to New Circle,
all of these soldiers, they have many commands in them. And all of these commands are relating to social life, in particular, personal as well as social.
And if you look at it, when it comes to social life, women, they play a very, very important role in that.
Because the woman is the basis of the family. And the family is the smallest unit of a society. And it's the women who teach their children as to how they should behave in a society how they should live in a society. And they're the ones who teach their children about morals, and all of these things.
And this is why we see that are modeled later on him. When he was a halifa. He issued a letter to the people of Kufa and he said to them, that i lemo neasa account subrata knew
that teacher women Sora to know why.
Because in the surah a lot of commands are given which are about family life, which are about social life. And these etiquettes these manners, these morals, they are taught to children by who, by their mothers, and they are to be taught to children at a very, very young age. There are many things which a person can learn about when he becomes an adult. However, when it comes to morals, when it comes to manners when it comes to etiquettes they have to be taught at a very early age. This is why a lot of the learner we emphasize that women they should be taught the solar they should study the solar.
And this solar is a Madani solar, because in it obviously there are many commands that have been given.
And the solar was revealed after solar to hash and the solar has a total of 64
Bismillah Ar Rahman AR Rahim sola to Angela her wife out of Napa what ends PHY her yet imagenet in LA I look on the moon.
This is a surah which we have sent down Enza. Now we have sent it down what followed NASA and we have made it obligatory. What ends in FY 18 bayonet, and we have revealed in it verses of clear evidence, why law law come to the cocoon, so that you may remember, so that you can take a lesson. So rotten, so rotten, is from the root letters seen well,
and the word Sora is used for a group or a collection of Quranic verses, whose beginning and ending had been appointed by Allah subhanaw taala. It's a group of verses of the Quran, whose beginning and ending have been appointed by who Allah.
And over here, the word surah does not just give the meaning of a group of verses rather it gives the meaning of this entire surah meaning solar to noon, this entire chapter, every single verse included within it.
So surah tune, meaning this is a surah howdy surah. And if you notice the word surah is Nikita. Why? Because Nikita sometimes gives the meaning of Tallinn, it gives the meaning of the flame.
So surah two, meaning this surah which is so great, which is so noble, which is so important.
This is a surah that einzelner how we have revealed it.
If you look at it, every single solar is revealed by who? by almost a penalty that's understood, and unzila what meaning does it give when something is
sent down from above, what does that denote?
First of all, it denotes the aloof of Allah
that Allah is above us,
his status is higher than us, his position is higher than us greater than us, what does that show that if he has sent it down on us, it means that this is something that is very important and we have to accept it with open hearts, because his knowledge is greater,
his wisdom is greater, his status is much higher, what is mentioned in the sutra
is not the words of a human being, what is mentioned in this law is not man made law
rather it has been revealed by Allah subhanaw taala who is greater than everything and everyone else.
So, einzelner how we have revealed it therefore, give importance to this entire sorta listen to every command that is in this folder and apply it as well.
And every slide is revealed by Allah subhanaw taala. But this has mentioned in particular over here to emphasize the importance of the sutra to emphasize the commands that are mentioned in the solar. So, so Ratan Angela, we have revealed it, therefore, take the solar seriously learn it, study it and apply it
without near her and we have also made it mandatory, we have also made it compulsory
for Ragnar from the roof letters for raw bought and fold as you know, is that which is obligatory that which is mandatory, something with regards to it, a person does not have any choice, he does not have any choice that either he can do it or he can leave it no foul is why it is mandatory, you have to do it, you have not been given any choice. So far all
we have obligated it, we have imposed it, meaning we have obligated this entire surah every single command that is mentioned in the surah is an obligation upon every Muslim, every single comment.
Every single command is incumbent on all of the believers on the self as well as the highlife, those who came early, and those who will come later.
Because sometimes we say that the commands that Allah has given, they were only relevant to that time, to the people of the time of the Prophet sallallahu sallam, to that society to the Arabian society. But what do we see over here for ordinary hair, we have obligated it upon every single believer. So regardless of where a person is living, in which country or in whichever era, under whose rule, it does not matter, for ragna this is obligatory every single command is mandatory.
What einzelnen and we have revealed fi hat in this order, I add in verses in this order, we have revealed such verses that are inactive, what is the unit mean? But unit is the plural of beginner. And I asked him the unit gives us two meanings. First of all, it gives the meaning of clear verses in this law. There are verses that are clear, meaning they are clear. They're self explanatory, in and of themselves. They're not ambiguous. They're clear. So the cam that Allah subhanaw taala has revealed in this order, they're clear any person can read them and he should be able to understand them.
And secondly, I asked him by Hina, but you know, it also gives the meaning of as clear evidences, as clear evidences meaning there are verses that clarify what has been obligated.
Why is this so? law law come to the karoun so that you can take heed, so that you can remember, you can take a lesson, meaning you can take a lesson from everything that is mentioned in the sutra, you can understand and observe the icon that are given in the surah.
If you look at it, the beginning verse of the surah is very unique. It is very, very direct in its message and no other solar begins in a way that this surah begins. Typically if you look at it every soldier It begins with a particular introduction. Like for example the praise of Allah soprano died. Some soldiers they begin with Alhamdulillah other soldiers, they begin with
Hello ma Katara
and by mentioning the praise of Allah by mentioning the hurdles Nakata by mentioning something about the Quran, indirectly, people are being reminded that take the surah seriously, that this orator Allah has revealed, this is something that is necessary for you. Allah is the one who's revealing it. It's based on his knowledge on his wisdom, therefore take it seriously.
But we see that that is mentioned indirectly by glorifying the Quran by glorifying Allah subhanaw taala.
But over here, we see that in a very direct manner, it has been mentioned that the soldier has been revealed by Allah, the surah has been obligated by Allah, and you have no choice with regards to it, you have to observe every single statement that is mentioned in the sola.
What does it show?
This shows the immense importance of the commands that are given in the solar.
Because sometimes what happens if something is not mentioned directly? We don't really understand its importance. We think it's necessary. However, some people can do it, maybe there's a choice with regards to it. But when something is mentioned directly, when you are told that this is an obligation, when the word fund is used, then is there any ambiguity left?
Is there any unsure it left? No way.
So in a very direct manner, it is mentioned right at the beginning, that this surah is from Allah and every single command is necessary.
So the commands that are given in the solar they should not be read with an assumption that they're not that important. They're not that relevant. No, every single instruction is important. Similarly, when a person is reading the suta, he should not think that the commands that are given in the surah are based on a man made law. Know the commands that are given in the sola they're from who? Allah soprano Dinah, they're from the Creator. And therefore, there should not be even a single command, that we should be objecting that we should be doubting that our hearts would refuse. No, if Allah is the one who has legislated this law, then we should accept it with our hearts, then we should
implement that law, we should not object we should not criticize, rather, we should give importance to every single one of them. Because these commands are from the Creator, and he has not given us any choice with regards to the observation of these comments.
And you will see that in this sort of there are many, many commands that are given
from Penal Law, from punishments, do commands which are with regards to how a person should behave in his house, how a person should be with his family, how a person should be when he enters the house. All of these commands are given and all of them are necessary.
So the first command that is given in the surah is with regards to the punishment of Xena.
Allah subhanaw taala says zania to the woman who for indicates was any and the man who for indicates what about them? federally do koloa had him in Houma. Then lash each one of them with how many lashes meet at agenda 100 lashes who bought the unmarried zanni and zania the woman and the man who commit Zina.
The question is who is is Enya. And who is is Annie.
The word zania and zanni both are from the root letters they known. Yeah. From the word Zener. And the word Zener. on the part of a woman because the woman is mentioned first Xena on the part of a woman is when she willingly agrees when she willingly agrees to have intercourse, sexual intercourse, not any other relationship. But what is this sexual intercourse with a man to whom she is not married to?
What is in it? When a woman willingly agrees to have sexual intercourse with a man whom she is not married to? Obviously, when she will agree the man has also agreed.
If you notice, in Xena what is necessary, what is necessary, the will the agreement that the woman agrees so in the case where a woman is raped, she will not be called zania alright in the
case where a woman is raped, she will not be called zania. zanier is a woman who willingly agrees to commit sin. She willingly offers herself to a man whom she's not married to. So the zania and designing who is any Zina on the part of a man is to have sexual intercourse with a woman whom he is not married to. What is it to have sexual intercourse with a woman whom he is not married to? And nor does he own her?
Because remember, that we learned in sort of the movie known for my neighbor taharah adeleke. Right. And for that two things are mentioned Illa Allah as you all know, Malik is a man who, for enumerator melamine. So when a man has sexual intercourse with a woman whom he's neither married, nor does he own, meaning she's not his slave woman, then outside of Mecca or outside of malkia, outside of nica, or outside of milk, Leah possession, then this is what? Xena on the part of the men.
And remember that in this case, where the man is designing, it's not necessary that the woman has agreed. So in the word Zani, according to some scholars, the rapist is also included.
So as zania, two was any the woman who forgets and the man who for negates, but in particular, in this ayah, the unmarried woman and men are being referred to,
because the punishment that is mentioned in this ayah is for who the unmarried fornicators it is not for the married ones, this is for the unmarried ones.
Now before we proceed, if you notice one thing, the woman is mentioned first, whereas typically what do we see? The men are mentioned first, while movement owner while movement, while Mona Fiona, while Mona pukaki. asako, was
always amazed mentioned first, but over here, we see that the woman is mentioned first Why? This is for several reasons. Because first of all, Xena, it cannot be committed, except with the agreement of the woman. Remember, that dinner cannot be committed except with the agreement of the woman, if she does not offer herself, if she does not agree, then can the man do Zina? Can he know he cannot? In the case, obviously, unless if it goes to the extent of rape, that's a different case then. But when it comes to Xena, primarily, it is when a woman willingly offers herself. So unless a woman agrees, unless a woman offers herself, can Xena be committed? No, it cannot be committed.
Therefore, because she is the cause of Xena, because she is the cause of dinner. This is why she's mentioned first. And many times you will notice that if there is a relationship and illegal relationship between a man and a woman who are unrelated, it will only be possible when a woman gives a signal to the men that yes, I am okay with this relationship. Because men, they come across many women. And they may try to, you can say hit many women, however, they're only successful with who with those women who agree, isn't it with those women who look at them, those women who speak to them in a manner that is unacceptable? Those women who sit with them who talk to them, who chat with
them, who hang out freely with them. These are the women with whom men can have a relationship.
But if a woman keeps herself away, if a woman keeps herself chaste, then a man cannot do anything. And you should remember that because men they offer but it cannot be possible unless a woman agrees. If you keep yourself away, no man can force you into relationship.
Because many times what happens, for example, with women, sometimes they're married, sometimes everything is normal in their lives, there comes a man saying things to them. That you know, I'm thinking about you. I really like you. I really like the way you talk. And you know, I'm sure I would be a better husband to you than your current husband. And they say such things to the women and the women. What do they think? Oh, he's so nice. He's being so romantic. He's so caring. And what happens? She gives him when she gives in. Only then the man can win.
If she does not give in the men cannot do anything. Remember that.
If you don't offer yourself if you don't give any chance to the man any opportunity to the man, he cannot do anything at all. Anything. If a man is looking you don't know
Look away. If a man is trying to talk you just speak about that which is necessary. If a man is trying to email you about things that are unrelated completely do not respond. If a man is trying to call you trying to send text messages, you do not respond, if you do not respond, the man cannot do anything. The moment you respond, the moment you give a green signal that says you have lost.
So what do we see that the woman has mentioned first, why? Because it is only by her approval, it is only by her permission, that such a relationship can be possible. And secondly, also the zanny has mentioned first, because the effect of Zinner the negative effect of Zener is more on the woman as compared to the men, especially if you look at it. This is the case of unmarried men and women.
And typically unmarried women, who would they be virgins, but if a woman commits enter, she's going to lose her virginity.
If she becomes pregnant, she is the one who's going to suffer.
The man is going to walk away from that relationship. He's going to enjoy for that moment, and that's it. But the woman is going to suffer. It's going to stain her personality, her image for the rest of her life. This is why the zania is mentioned first.
So as the Nieto was any, the woman who fornicate and the man who foreign negates both of them, Allah says federally do them flog, lash whip, go lower, hadn't been home and each one of them to the man and the woman, both of them have to be flogged. And finally do this is a command that is being given to the earlier this is a command that is being given to the rulers to the judges.
And the word allegedly do is from the root letters Jeanne lamb that jelly and jelly is to flog. Basically, it's from the word yield and what is the skin, it's the skin of the button. And if you look at it, a whip, a whip is made of what leather and what is leather, the skin and aloe gel is horrible, Jill, it is to strike the skin. It is to strike the body in a way as to not impact beyond the skin.
It is to strike the body with something in a way that the impact does not go beyond the skin. It's only skin deep.
So for example, if a person is lashed, his skin must not be wounded. If the skin is wounded, then the effect is going to go beyond the skin.
Similarly, if a person is beaten by a stick, or if a person is hit by a rock or something what's going to happen, it's going to cause perhaps a bone to be injured.
But we see that gender is to flog it is to lash with a whip such that the effect is only skin deep, it does not go beyond the skin.
This is the reason why when it comes to flogging when it comes to lashing, it is not permissible to have a knot at the end of the whip. Why? Because if there is a knot, then what's going to happen? What's going to happen it's going to injure the person it's going to warn the person.
Similarly, Gerald, it cannot be done with a stick or with a rock or with an iron bowl or something like that. It has to be done with a whip that is made off leather
sofas finally do go lower hidden min Huma flog each one of the two, how many times meet at agenda 100 lashes not more, and not less.
Now these 100 lashes they can be given all in one day, or they can also be given in intervals.
So for example, 21 day 20 The next day, and this depends on the physique and the physical state of the person who is being punished. Because some people they have the endurance, if they're lash 200 times it will not affect them as much. But other people if they're lash 200 times at once, it could cause them that it could literally kill them.
But we see that the effect of this punishment should only be skin deep it should not cause death. Therefore, if 100 lashes at once could cause death could cause severe injury to a person. Then in that case, the punishment will be divided over a period of time over a number of
Please. So finally do cola had a mean humor me at agenda
and when the punishment is being executed, whenever the outcome and it should not surprise you, what should Nazis you be email for them to for who to for the zanni and the ximea
What should not see is you, Fatone any pity, any compassion, feeding ilahi concerning the religion of Allah, concerning the judgment of Allah.
So when the punishment is being executed on these two individuals, then the executions of the punishment, they should not feel any compassion for these two criminals. With regards to the deen of Allah. The word has been used over here and refer is from the root letters for Hamza
and refer is such mercy or it is such compassion that fills up the heart, on seeing someone in pain on seeing someone in difficulty. So when the punishment is being executed, your heart should not be filled with compassion for these two people. Why? Because what they have done is a serious crime. It's a serious offense. And in our Deen we are taught that we must not side with the oppressors. Rather, we should side with who? Those who are oppressed.
So these two individuals are who they're oppressors. Therefore, you cannot have any compassion for them. Because if you begin to have compassion for the oppressors, then how will justice be established? It will not be possible. Fi Dina lay. And over here Dean. Dean, as you know, means religion. But it also means judgment. Maliki Yeoman team recommends awarding of reward and punishment. So when this punishment is being awarded, when this punishment is being given, in executing this command, do not feel pity, and as a result of that pity, reduce the punishment or not implement the punishment. Because sometimes what happens when you feel pity for someone, what do you
say, forget it, don't hold them accountable, don't punish them, let them be. But no, this cannot be done.
Because this is a law that has been given by who
Allah, and this law has been obligated by who? Allah subhanaw taala he has not given us any choice, therefore you cannot have pity for them. Hadees tells us that a judge will be brought forth on the Day of Judgment, who reduced the punishment by one lash. Why? Because he felt pity. He felt bad. So he reduced the punishment by just one lash. He will be asked, why did you reduce the punishment by one lash, he will say out of pity for the creation, it will be said to him, Allah is more merciful to his creation than you.
Allah is more merciful to his creation than you. And such a person will be thrown into the fire for what he has done. Because he did not give the help of the law of Allah.
He did not implement the obligation that Allah has imposed on us. This teaches us a very, very important lesson, that sometimes when things must be done, when the guilty must be caught, when the guilty must be given the punishment that he deserves.
And sometimes it could be in a house even that where one child has done something seriously wrong to the other child, but you just feel bad, it's okay, and you let it go. And the child who has been oppressed you don't do anything for him. And the child who has done wrong you don't teach him a lesson, then what does this lead to injustice
over here, we must not make judgments by our emotions. Rather we have to make judgments according to the laws that Allah subhanaw taala has given and we should remember that we cannot be more merciful than Allah.
And if we want to increase the punishment, again, we should remind ourselves that we cannot be more just than Allah.
Because sometimes we say oh, this cannot be acceptable at all give double punishment got double marks, but what do we see? We cannot be more merciful than Allah and we cannot be more just than Allah. Therefore, whatever the rule is, whatever the law is, implemented, as it is, without any deletions or any additions, what are the whole combi hemara photon feeding la in contento manana Bella he will yo me
condition has been placed over here. If you believe in Allah and the Last Day, meaning if you truly believe in align the last day, then you will carry out the punishment as it has been prescribed. Then you will not change it, you will not alter it, you will not reduce it. You will not have any pity for these criminals in contempt took me Nola Bella, he will you will ask
why is this mentioned over here? Well, yo Mel acid if you believe in the last day, because when a person believes in the last day, he believes in the accountability on the last day, he believes in the recompense that each person will be given and he cannot avoid.
So, if that is going to happen on the Day of Judgment, then today if Allah has given some recompense to a person, how can you not execute that in contempt took me no Nabila, he will Leoville acid, then you will definitely apply the judgment that Allah subhanho data has given while he has had other Bahama and he should witness what the punishment of the two who should witness the punishment of the two
by a group mean and many of those people who believe Wailea shad lamb over here is off,
that this is imperative that at the time when the punishment is being executed, a group of the believers should be present over there.
They should witness the punishment being executed, they should see it being carried out why,
in order to take a lesson for themselves, and also for the exposure of the culprits that those who are criminals, they're exposed and so that the crime is prevented in the future.
While Yesh had other Bahama toy if I don't mean I'll move money. Now the word thought it applies to a group of people, the minimum number of which is three and the maximum is 1000.
So when the punishment is being executed, some people some believers should at least be there. So that it is known that the punishment was carried out the punishment is made public.
And some have said that thought because of the word thought, it means that at least three people should be there. At least three. And others have said that if three are not possible, then even one or two are enough. So while Yes, either either our whole motto, if at all, meaning meaning, what does it show
that the punishment should be carried out before the people so that people can see the consequences of this great crime. Because when they see this consequence, someone is being flogged, someone is being lashed 100 times, and no pity is being taken on them. No one is being compassionate on them, then what does it show what a serious crime This is, and how it will develop hate in the hearts of people for this crime.
Because unfortunately, there's so many crimes that are committed today. But there's no sense of accountability. No one is held accountable. And because no one is held accountable, people don't realize the seriousness of the crime. And because they don't realize the seriousness of the crime, they keep committing it.
And it has become so common, that even people who are as young as 12 year old 12, even they're committing such great crimes, without knowing the seriousness of this crime.
Now, over here, we see that a punishment has been mentioned before we proceed, you should remember that, in this order, certain punishments are mentioned and punishments that are set by Divine Law, they are known as Roku that the technical term for them is Roku bat, Islamic penal law. And the general word for punishment is Uber or Uber is from an archivist, one thing coming after the other and archivists here. So recuva is the punishment that follows the transgression of the limits that have been set by almost panatela. So, if a person violates the limits that Allah has set, then this action we followed by what by a punishment
and punishments are mainly of two types, there are two terms that are used for such punishments. First of all, had
as you are familiar with the word Hadoop had, what is had literally mean a limit. And what is the limit to it prevents it restraints it prohibits. When you have a limit, you cannot go beyond it.
So it prevents people from going beyond it restraints people to stay within to stay inside.
And Hadoop refers to the restrictive and preventive ordinances of Allah subhanaw taala concerning things that are unlawful,
restrictive and preventive ordinances of Allah concerning things that are unlawful?
what ordinances are these, that they are about giving punishment to a person who has committed something that is unlawful? And this punishment, what does it do? It prevents people from committing the crime again, or it prevents other people from committing that crime. So restrictive and preventive commands of Allah concerning things that are unlawful. So, the purpose of the Hadoop is to deter people from committing these actions.
And these punishments are of different types they include for instance, lashing like what is mentioned over here, flogging similarly it includes killing Patil.
And it includes for example, for the thief cutting off the hand and the Hadoop of Allah. They are implemented on which crimes on crime such as on crimes such as dinner on crime such as theft,
and mainly those punishments which have been mentioned clearly in the Quran and Sunnah. Do that what are those punishments which have been mentioned clearly in the Quran and Sunnah for particular crimes.
So this is one type of punishment.
The other type is their disease
that was either there or in a year or and Thorazine literally means to disgrace the criminal.
What does it mean, to disgrace the criminal?
So Thorazine refers to those punishments which have not been mentioned in the Quran and Sunnah meaning which have not been given directly by Allah and His messenger.
But because the act is serious, it is of criminal nature. Therefore, it cannot be ignored either.
So what is done? is a criminal left on his own because there is no punishment given in the Quran and Sunnah directly for this is why the criminal will be left no, he will be punished.
So how will he be punished by that receive? And Thorazine is a punishment that is made by the quality that is given by who
by the call the by the judge, it is up to his discretion, he decides what kind of punishment should be given. And that is obviously, in relation to the circumstances in relation to the nature of the crime, the effect of the crime.
So, for example, we have learned that when a person commits theft, then what is the punishment? Cutting off the hand? But what if a person commits theft of a pen?
That is also theft, isn't it?
So for a penny, even his hand will be chopped off. Because remember that if the value of the stolen object is more than a quarter enough, if the value is more than a quarter dinner, then the hand will be cut off. But what if it's less than a quarter Dina, then will the thief be left? No, he cannot be left he has to be punished. Therefore, the judge will decide that okay, what he has done is of criminal nature and legally Okay, there is no punishment. However, there must be punishment, otherwise, he will commit this crime again and again.
So for example, the coffee can judge that this person should be lashed, let's say 30 times 50 times, however much is necessary.
Similarly, we learned that the punishment of Xena
is flogging over here, this is what we have learnt, isn't it?
But how about if a man and woman did not actually commit sexual intercourse, but they did have physical contact? physical contact, like for example, their fondling or things that are unacceptable? They're doing something like that. So in that case, again, should they be left? No, a punishment will be carried out.
So for example, the punishment for Xena is 100 lashes. So, for such contact, it could be 20 lashes, for instance. Okay. Now who will decide that
the body will decide that.
Similarly, we see that the punishment for accusing someone of committing dinner without any evidence that a person just goes and says this person has committed dinner and he doesn't
produce any witnesses, then for this person, there's punishment, isn't it all in the Quran and the punishment for such a person is at lashes, but what if a person accuses another of having alcohol?
Now, having alcohol is also something that is wrong, isn't it? So, now, a person is accusing someone that this person has alcohol this person is a drunkard. Now, should this accuser be left on his own no he will be held accountable he will be punished.
So, for example, the party can decide that this person should be flogged. So in so many times,
and remember that our z it also takes various forms, just as the Hulu there they take various forms her lewd art like for example, flogging Patil, right. There are the it includes punishments such as boycott includes punishments such as exile, that a person is exiled from his city. It includes punishments such as flogging or beating fine, a penalty.
So these are the main two types of punishments that are in Islamic penal law.
Over here, which punishment is mentioned, what type of punishment is it? Of hoodoo This is a head
so this is a head that has to be implemented on who on the one who commit Zina the man and the woman