Channel: Jamal Badawi
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Salam Alaikum peace be unto you. We're continuing with our series dealing with the sources of Islam. Today we have our 10th program dealing with the Khurana modern sciences. We'll be continuing our discussion of the topic of human reproduction. I'm your host, Tamar Rashid and I have joining me as usual on the program, Dr. Jamal Better Way of St. Mary's University brother Jamal Assalamualaikum.
Very quickly highlight and summarize the main points that we touched on in our last program dealing with the topical human reproduction, a separate program on this topic chair, two basic issues were examined in the lives of the Quran.
One is the reference in the Quran, especially in Surah 75, that the human is created only from a very small drop of liquid or the circular sperm extract as the Quran also use as well. And we try to explain that again in the
in the light of modern science and how we can better understand the secret of this expression in the Quran.
The second issue, which was the main focus, really of the program, was the fact that the Quran especially in Surah, 53 and elsewhere also ties between the contribution of the male side or the husband
in crystallization and the determination of the sex of the fetus. And in order to appreciate the Quranic
term used in that respect, we discussed briefly the role of the cells and division of the cells and the role of nucleic acid like the DNA and RNA in controlling the activities of the cell. From that explanation, it was indicated that the organ, the female ovum, is not really the one that determine the sex of the fetus because it always carries the X chromosome. But on the other hand, we have seen that some of the male's terms carry the X chromosome, some carry the Y chromosome, and it is that variation in the type of sperm, which determines the
nature of the child or the sex of the fetus.
The main question that we have been asking throughout these programs is how could Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him? No of these things 1400 years ago, unless the Quran was actually a revelation, a divine revelation.
We mentioned last time as well and every cell contains 46 chromosomes. What happened to this number when The Omen ovum is fertilized? Okay. Well, it is true that in a way, you can say that the sperm and ovum are both cells in the body.
But there are two different types of division of cells. The more common one was, which is known as mitosis,
means that when the completion or the only division of the cell is completed, you end up with having two identical cells, each of them having 46 chromosomes.
And the reason why this cell has to be identical is actually clear from the Divine Wisdom of replacing the cells that die in the body. For example, it is said that every second, about two and a half million red blood cells die and are replaced the same thing for white blood cells, the same thing for skin other numbers also. So, the total comes to close to 216 billion with the B cells that die gets replaced every day. Now, of course, it is very essential under this circumstances, that the replaced cell replacement cells should be identical to the ones lost or else you know, you get very strange transformation in the human body.
This is the most common thing. There is an exception however, another method of cell division which is called meiosis, and that is specially for the reproductive cells.
Because you know, the the organ and the sperm can actually originate from cells in the body, the ovaries or in the testicles. And what happens that when these cells divide, and ultimately result in the organ, or the sperm, it does not carry all the chromosomes actually
It carries half of that number. So the organ would have 23 chromosomes, the sperm would have 23 chromosomes. So when the the sperm fertilizes the oven, you end up having what 46. So that you get the complete set. This is again, a clear indication of the divine wisdom in planning things so that you get, again, exactly the same kind of number of chromosomes in the completed version. And this is not only important for that reason, but for something that he discussed also, last time, that
it is this variation
in this method of division of the cells that give rise to two types of
sperms, because in the case of the organ, even when the division takes place, you still have an organ, with 23 chromosomes carrying the x female characteristics. In the case of the sperm, it's quite different because you get some sperms with X chromosome, some with Y chromosome. In fact, modern research shows that it is possible to distinguish between both sides
sperms. While this might not be very clear here, but you notice in the one that has the spotlight, that the Y chromosome has a certain glow or light, you know, at the head, which does not appear, for example, on the other sperms that carry the X chromosome. So there is some distinction between both types of spins that could be seen under the microscope.
In fact, there are also additional research that shows that the chromosome that carries the Y, or the sperm that carries the Y chromosome rather, is faster and stronger. So there's quite a distinction between both of them.
Well, up to this point, in our discussion in our previous two programs, we spent quite a bit of time talking about the process process rather of fertilization. What about other stages of the central stages of development? Does the Quran say anything about that there is an amazing passage in the Quran that really was quite stunning to physicians who studied that, and that appears in Surah 23, particularly in passages 12 through 14
and in sentiments relativamente.
It says in the translation of meaning, we did create the human from an extract of clay,
then we placed him as a small drop of liquid in a firmly established Lodge.
Then we made that small drop of liquid into something that clings
then we fashion, that thing that cleans into a chewed lump of flesh.
And we fashioned the tooth flesh into bone and you close the bone with flesh that is intact flesh as interpreted by Okay, then we developed out of it another creature, so let's be Allah the best to create.
In fact, once we analyze the contents and meaning of this passage in the Quran, it would be quite amazing for people to realize that this was not revealed a few decades ago a few years ago as some might think, but it was revealed 1400 years ago
in the previous program, some explanation was offered for the secret of the terms to lie in the Quran or extract and then try to explain that
we have also explained that the POS program does not fall or the small or very small quantity of sperm or drop of liquid that has already been covered. But it's it's quite amazing to notice here. The varieties of terms used in this passage especially describing the place where the fertilized ovum as we know it
grow and the Quran calls that a firmly established lodge which is quite interesting. From the anatomical point of view.
Could you explain
how it is firmly step
one, the uterus is placed in the pelvis in such a way so as to protect the fetus from outside pressure. As you see from the this following slide number two. And this slide by the way was shown before when we talked about the variations in the size of the year.
But you're not to see it that the uterus is firmly established. It's connected with the spine and protected by it.
You find also there are a number of muscles and ligaments, which hold the uterus firmly in place, while still allowing it to grow depending on the stage of development or growth of the fetus.
In addition to this protection from outside pressures, or danger, there is also an amazing process of the balance in the air pressure inside the body cavity as has been studied by physicians, which would help
protect and keep the uterus and other organs. So that matters in place, despite of all this flexibility in the growth, or change, this protection of the fetus from outside danger is further enhanced by the amniotic fluid in which the fetus floats it will intersect and surround him. So that is an additional protection also,
with this kind of background that we know from science, it is indeed amazing that the Quran would use this specific expression to describe the uterus as being a place which is firmly established or firmly established, not just an amusing How could the Prophet have had any notion of this?
What happens after the fertilized ovum which is the heroes?
Well, according to the description given in the Quran, in the same passage that we quoted earlier, but the fertilized organ becomes, as the Quran puts it, aloka and the proper translation of Allah really is something that clings and emphasizing that because there are some errors in translation, including, for example, the translation of the meaning of the Quran by Yusuf Ali, where he translated as congealed blood or clumps of congealed blood, this has nothing to do with the original Arabic word, which simply says Allah and Allah come from Allah, which means something that hangs literally
cleanse. This Quranic description of that stage is again amazing, because it was not clearly understood. Until recently, when it was found that the fertilized ovum when it comes from the fallopian tubes into the uterus,
literally implants itself or cleanse. In the world of theatres are intelligent, a trainee literally hangs or clings
in that stage of the embryonic development.
When understand a few slides, I'll do this as well. Could you share those with us back to this time? Sure, let me just say one word, and then I will show you a couple of slides that may illustrate the point. You see, the way that the fertilized ovum implants itself in the or cleanse in the uterus from inside is basically through the development of something they call velocities,
the velocities act more or less like the roots of the plant, that is to say, to maintain or keep the, the organ of fertilized ovum in place so that it won't fall. But more importantly, it almost like eats or gets itself intermingled with the sense of the uterus as to draw the necessary nutrients which are needed for the growth of the of the fetus.
Now let's look at some of those illustration. And this slide here, slide three, we notice that this is actually a very rich shots
taken inside to us after the fertilized ovum came to it. And that is only a few hours really after it came to the gutters. That is seven about seven and a half days after fertilization because you see the fertilized ovum takes somewhere between five to seven days to move from the fallopian tube to the
to the uterus.
In the second
photograph, it shows again, a very early embryo and which is just about 12 years old. That is after fertilization or five days. So it's four days. Yeah, so different days on that is about five days after it started to clink into the theaters. And in that
a scientist also noted that there are two types of cells at least
There is the external type of cells, which act to hold the, the fertilized organ or get fused with the uterus. And then there is also the internal sense from which the fetus is to be created
by Allah. In that following illustration, you'll notice another type of clinging.
You notice it's almost like a rope or something that's holding,
you know, the these parts, actually, it's connected, it's called the connecting stock. So in a way, again, the description of clinging or hanging is something which is really amazing in a variety of states. It's a very, very meticulous description. And Against this background,
we may ask, towards the use of the term something that claims in the Quran a matter of coincidence,
highly improbable, we expect this expression, something that claims it doesn't appear in other instances in Econ, over and above the one that we just refer to. Yes, it does. In fact, in addition to the passage we mentioned earlier, that's 2312 to 14, we find again, that's the 10th term alaka, or something that comes up here in 22, five, and 4067, in 75, passages, 37 and 38. And also in the very first passage that was with the Prophet Mohammed, while meditating in the cave of Hara that's 96 in the first five
passages, and perhaps we can just recite that because to give, number one to get one additional documentation. And because of it's very interesting, meticulous description, just like the passage that we quoted before, across the Synoptic, Allah Allah, it says, but read that is read or recite, or Mohammed, in the name of your Lord and cherisher, who created created humankind, out of something that cleanse and Allah out of something that cleanse, read and your Lord is most bountiful, he who taught the use of the pen taught humankind that which he knew not. So the Quran is quite clear that number one, the usage of the term claim
is repeated in several passages number one, number two, it shows that that stage happens after the mitzvah or the fertilized ovum, which is the very correct description, both timewise and the nature of implantation, if you will, of the oven
to the next stage of development, and I wonder if in doing so if you could perhaps address the if some both the colonic and the scientific standpoint, okay. First of all, the Quran says that it is not a small quantity of liquid, then it says something that's clean. And then the term appears in the Quran, in the same sort of refer to 23. Allah, so maharatna, Allah kamatera, it becomes, or this thing that that
or that thing that claims becomes Mandala. The word Mandala in Arabic could have two meanings, related meanings. In fact, one is something that one can choose, that is very small size, that one even can keep concrete in his mouth very small.
But the more correct meaning actually, is that
it's something that is being chewed.
That's why a more correct translations of this passage in the Quran, it says choose a lump of flesh exam. Now, the other question that you raised, how could modern science help us to understand the depth of this Quranic expression? and answering that question, you can perhaps refer to the following slide, that is number six. In that slide,
notice that there appears to be something similar to the marks of teeth. This is actually an actual picture of an embryo, which is only 24 days on
only 24 days. And you notice here there are certain
marks that appear as if they are on the virtue
or that they were some kind of teeth actually chewing
that particular flesh or piece of flesh.
It's an amazing description. Like I said, you can't really you can say
So much about it. But once you look at the illustration, which is an actual picture, one can appreciate the depths of that Quranic expression. Again, the question here is, could Prophet Muhammad have been the author of the Quran 1400 years ago saying these kind of things I'm describing this meticulous
This term to flesh isn't the only term that is used in the Quran to describe this particular stage of development. There is also an additional description for example, we find in Surah 22, especially in passage five. It describes also this chewed lump of flesh, as moderate in Maha naka de vida maharlika.
The translation of this words, or the description of that, tooth flesh
can be either in proportion, and out of proportion, that could be one meaning it could also mean partly formed, and partly unformed. It's possible meaning also, and it's not contradictory with a third meaning actually is differentiated and undifferentiated. Dr. Mohammed bar describes some of these in detail in terms of modern knowledge of, of medicine, that all of this could actually apply and are correct interpretation of the meaning meloxin.
Let me just for shortness of time, give one of those illustration, if you take, let's say, the first meaning, which is,
it means in proportion, and out of proportion. And it is not it here, as we see in the following slide. Number seven, that
in a certain stage of the embryonic development, we notice that the body or the fetus is really out of proportion. In other words, you'll notice for example, that maybe the hands, the back might be somewhat both in reasonable proportion. However, notice, for example, that the head is more than one third, perhaps more than one thirds of the the body. And as the embryo develops further, the you know, the proportionality becomes more evident. So this could be a possible reference also to the Quranic description, in proportion, and out of proportion, at least in some stage.
What happens in the subsequent stages to those that we've just been describing? When, if we refer back again to the passage, it talks that after the stage, which is called a chewed lump of flesh,
we find that it says that it becomes bones that it grow into all the bonds, bonds are formed. And that's again, consistent with what scientists have found out that the bones are closed with flesh, because again, the initial bone structure,
for example, between the fifth and sixth week, some of those bone structures join together and constitute the skull, for example, starts to take shape. And then the Quran says that this are closed with flesh. And again, scientists tell us that in the weeks six to seven weeks
of pregnancy or the embryonic stage, we find that the muscles begin to develop. And then finally, it's interesting to notice that the area of that passage, and by saying that then we created that is the human or made him into another
creature. And that is quite an interesting expression. And we can appreciate that more perhaps if we examine some of the slides. I don't know if we have time for them.
So do we have seven minutes remaining? Could you perhaps take us through those? Okay, perhaps if we examine that, the first slide here,
that shows again, or emphasize the point that we mentioned earlier, about mortality, mohalla carcinoid mohalla, in proportion out of proportion, this is actually a back view of a fetus. And you might say where is the head, the, the upper part is on the neck back because the head is just leaning to the front. And then you notice that these two different bugs on the side are actually the beginning of the formation of the of the arms and the legs, of course again, appear to be just beginning towards the end of the lower parts of the body. And the next one, we notice here is again, a very
Nice illustration of what the Quran says that then we created him into or made him into another creature, because this one shows the various embryonic stages of the human,
which appears on the left hand side versus other animals,
like rabbits checks. For example, the last one is the development of the fish. And if you look at it, you notice that in the first row on the upper one upper row,
it is very difficult to distinguish between the embryo of the human The, the rabbit, the check of the fish for that matters. In the second stage, the fish seem to be quite distinct, if you look on the right hand side becomes quite different. But the other animals are quite similar to the embryo of the human. In the lower part, however, that is where the distinct features of each of these animals, visibly, the human, of course, become quite distinct. In the next slide, we notice
there's an illustration of the various stages of development
combined together in one picture, if you will,
going through various stages
of development, the biggest one actually is simply
12 weeks, that's the little fellow in the lower right hand side. And the bigger federal bear is only 16 weeks old.
The next slide is a beautiful shot and actual charts of an embryo was only 42 days old. Yeah, 42 days.
And you might wonder how big that might be. And it's only one and a half centimeters, one and a half centimeters. And if you look on the top of the head, there, you can see the brain being formed.
Just immediately, under the chin, there is the heart, immediately under that there is the levers. And on both sides of the heart, you notice the budding of the beginning of the hands, formation of the hand, the fingers even might not be that distinct. But what began just to, to take some shape in the following one is an embryo and the eighth week, we notice again that the features of the human has not crystallized fully yet, and that is still inside the amniotic sac. And the following one, you'll notice the gradual growth and development of the toes or the you know, the feet and the hands. And that one is in the eighth week, the following one shows
the an embryo and the ninth week of development. Now the features of a human began to be more distinct, even though it's not very obvious. For example, the nose looks very small and tiny. And the next one is an actual
photograph inside the womb of
a fetus. Second, his fingers, you might ask well, four and a half months, imagine four and a half months, and he's doing that already. In the next one. It's an interesting one because the next year is hugging the umbilical cord.
In the following slides, there is a comparison between the development of the fetus. One is the six months. The bigger one, the one and the other one is in the eighth week or second month. And the second one of course they are the
orders setup. You'll notice that the features of the face became more distinct. In the next one we have an actual chart of an a fetus who is five and a half months
old. It looks like thinking like Dr. Basu just what he What is he going to do after he comes out aware.
The following one is a fetus we seem to be happy, smiling, butchered, again that they do react and understand things. And you notice also there is some kind of writing as
marks in his
The next one is, again, about five and a half months
as if he's scratching and that's why there is a sort of a fatty layer there to protect him because actually the thing that needs begin to grow at this time. And that last one we got the little fella
Already, after coming through this world, it's amazing when you look at this, to remember what the Quran says in Surah 39 in passage six, that Allah creates your creation after creation in three darkness.
Personally, we want to thank very much Bella Jamal. We want to thank you for watching our time, unfortunately for the day has gone Assalamu alaikum peace be unto you