Channel: Jamal Badawi
Series: Jamal Badawi - Pillars of Islam
In the name of Allah benevolent the Merciful, the creator and the Sustainer of the universe. I greet you with the greetings of all the profits from Abraham to Prophet Muhammad peace and blessings be upon them. Assalamu Aleikum, which means peace beyond you. I'm your host Hamad Rashid. Welcome to Islam and focus. And today's program we have our third program in our fifth series, dealing with the Pillars of Islam, and today we'll continue our discussion of players or to use the Arabic term slot. I have with me on today's program, Dr. Jamal betawi from St. Mary's University. Welcome, brother Jamal. I wonder if perhaps before we go on with our discussion today on prayers if perhaps you might
take a few minutes just to recap our discussion of last week when we began our discussion on on salado prayers, could you just highlight the points we covered in last week's program? Certainly, last week's program was mainly dealing with the question of purity or cleanliness as a prelude or preparation for the prayers.
And we mentioned that in the most normal and common cases, all that's needed before prayers is evolution, which means washing the hands three times rinsing the mouth, nostrils, washing the face three times, right arm, left arm, rubbing over the head, cleaning the ears inside and outside washing the feet. The first first one is the right foot and then the left foot. This was the main
standard ablution or washing for the prayers.
women had also some concessions, we said that in cases where water is not available or maybe harmful because of some skin diseases that are concessions and substitution of symbolic act called pm.
We also mentioned that in the case of washing the feet, there is also a concession that is the one that the person washes his feet in the morning and where his socks he can just
gently up over them instead of washing the feet for the rest of the day, which makes it quite convenient and making devolution in offices or places where there is no facility for washing the feet.
We discussed briefly also the special cases where bathing would be required
special cases as a prerequisite for fresh water, evolution may not necessarily be enough. This discussion, in fact led us to two interesting topics. One is the notion in Islam itself and the attitude towards integration of various aspects of life in response to your question that some people might feel that Islam provides guidance in every respect, including even, you know, the aspect of cleanliness. And he said yes, because after all, Islam takes human life as an integrated whole, including all social, political, personal and spiritual hygenic aspects of it. It's all just one whole integrated.
The second topic that came up in the context of our discussion was the question of hygiene in Islam, that it's not only the ritualistic preparation for prayer washing in a special way in a particular order.
But you said that this is part and parcel of a systemic approach toward cleanliness or purity and hygiene. And the question of cleanliness and purity we mentioned that the word taharah or cleanliness or purity is used in the Quran to refer both to spiritual, moral cleanliness as well as physical and there is not much there is no need actually for contradiction between both Islam tried to integrate all of them together. And the other aspects with respect to hygiene, I think we discovered that there were quite a few interesting
teachings that appears both in the Quran and the saying of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him, which relate to hygiene, the preservation of the ecology, protection of the environment and prevention of the spread of germs and diseases. Something that's quite fascinating to learn that this was revealed as part of Islamic teaching 1400 years ago before even germs were discovered or known like keeping the water
hallways and shades of people clean from pollution, wise use of resources. You might recall we discussed also the dental hygiene and the medical benefits of the so called miswak kind of natural toothbrush 1400 years ago it was used by Muslims and since then, until now even some people use it both alongside with the just brush with the pace they also use that it has very useful material for dental hygiene, the quarantine regulations, perfect Muhammad peace be upon him taught people when there is contagious diseases, prevention of
intoxicants and the like. And, in fact, what we touched upon yesterday or last week, I should say, it was only just part of a whole issue about Islam and hygiene. I know a lady who is writing her doctoral dissertation at Indiana University, just on this issue of Islam, standard view of hygiene and physical fitness, the whole doctoral dissertation just on that subject. So this was basically the first aspect in preparation for the phase. Okay, moving on that prayer or slot itself and I'm going to use these terms interchangeably so that the perhaps the viewing audience will become familiar, because prayer is perhaps not a an absolute or good
term to describe the Arabic term a lot. But moving on to prayer or a lot itself. Perhaps you could explain the role and significance of salaat in Islam. Okay, you might recall, in the first program in this series, Pillars of Islam mentioned that the superstructure of Islam or the basic minimum deities are five pillar five pillars.
Immediately after belief in God, or Allah, and Prophet, Muhammad peace be upon him, which implies Of course believing all prophets were the second
pillar of Islam is actually prayers. So it's a very essential, very basic duty for the Muslim.
The Quran, the prayer has been mentioned in the Quran, in dozens of places, it was related and tied with charity with all kinds of virtues.
In fact, as Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him indicated in a number of settings, in the collections of Muslim Harry and Timothy, for example, that the line that divides between a believer and an unbeliever or a Muslim, believing Muslim and a person who's not believing is neglect, of prayers. Indeed, to neglect the prayers is almost tantamount to disbelief and to deliberately for the Muslim to deliberately neglect the prayers with the understanding that it's irrelevant or an attitude of belittling its importance is an actual disbelief, that person with that attitude can no longer really be called a Muslim.
Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him has indicated also, that the first thing that you are held accountable for in the Day of Judgment is prayers, whether we have kept this prescribed regular prayers or not. In the Quran, as we find, for example, in various places, including,
for example, a verse that says that in the Day of Judgment, the believers will be telling those who are in Hellfire what brought you to the Hellfire or led you into the Hellfire, and they will say that we will not keeping our prayers.
On the other hand, taking the others bright side of the picture, we find that description of Paradise
indicates that keeping this regular prayers to God is one of the
main causes for people to get into paradise.
it is a sign of Felicity and success as we find for example, in chapter 87, particular verses 14 and 15.
In one single Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him he says that God has enjoined on you five prayers in every day and night, any person who keeps them sincerely, Allah has given the promise for him to enter him into paradise. If he doesn't, then it's up to Allah, he may forgive him or he may punish him because of his
neglect. So there there is endless
you know sayings about this particular topic both in the saying of Prophet Muhammad as well as revelations in the Quran. Of course this to come to the essence of it shows how important and central
his prayers in the life of the Muslim and the far reaching impact and influence that it could have on the believers life, if it is done in such a way, that's not just a ritual or formal thing, but really to get all the lessons that prayers are intended to teach.
Now, in our some of our previous programs, I think even last week, when we were talking, you're saying that
the original teachings of all of the prophets, all of the previous prophets are essentially the same. Right? What about this question of prayers or a lot? How do they compare in this particular statement whether there was similar requirement in previous profit?
Or is there there are lots of mention of that in the Quran showing or giving the clear impression that prayer in principle, was a requirement in the teaching of all prophets? We don't know we don't have details, for example, about the exact format whether it was exactly the same like the Muslim prayer has taught to Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him by engine, Gabrielle, or whether it has a different format, but the principle of prayers to God the Quran says and insisted was the teaching worldprofit. For example,
the Quran talks about Prophet Abraham, the patriarch of monotheism as usually accepted. For example, in chapter 14, verse 14,
he prays, or he's quoted as praying, Abidjan. mimaki masala Tian is a reality, oh, my Lord, make me want to establish regular prayers, and also have my offsprings or my Lord accept my prayers. So that's a different state.
Similarly, we find the that the Quran indicates that God has inspired Isaac, and Jacob, to keep regular prayers, while hyena
that is in chapter 21, verses 72 and 73. That God has inspired Isaac and Jacob, to do good deeds, to establish regular prayers to practice charity, and that they were constantly serving God.
Taking the other side of the household of Abraham Ashman, the other the first son of Abraham. The Quran also indicates that he was a person who was keeping that prayers and enjoying that on his people. For example, in chapter 19, versus 54 and 55. It says and mentioned in the book that the Quran is mine, he was strictly true to his promise, and he was an apostle and a prophet. And then not as this, he used to enjoin on his people, or family, prayer and charity, and he was most acceptable in the sight of his Lord. So prayer again is mentioned.
going down in history, for example, to another great Prophet Moses, peace be upon him. In chapter 20, verse 14, describing the scene in Mount Sinai, when God gave him the 10 commandments, it says there also
that God addressed him, verily I am God, there is no god but me. So serve me only, and establish regular prayers, for celebrating my prayers. You go down the history and you find that is repeated also, in the case of
Prophet Jesus peace be upon him another great prophet in Islam. In chapter 19, for example, in verse 30, and 31,
quoting Jesus when he addressed his people, as saying,
he said, I am indeed a servant of God. He has given me revelation, and made me a prophet, and he has made me blessed wheresoever IV, he has enjoined on me prayers, and charity as long as I live. So again, quoting Prophet Jesus, peace be upon him.
In order just to save time, there are similar statements, for example, about Mary, this be upon her also the mother of Jesus, in chapter three, verse 43, that she was also ordained to bow down and prostrate to God,
Prophet Shai as a prisoner 1187. Look, man, a wise man mentioned also in the Quran, in chapter 31, verse 17. The same thing culminated also and was repeated or re confirmed.
Or reiterated in the teaching that was given to Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him the last of the messengers of God. For example, in chapter 17, verse 78, and 79. It ordains the profit to establish regular prayer similarly in chapter 73, also deals largely with the incumbent deity and Prophet Muhammad
Have this prayer, especially at night when people are asleep as a way of expressing gratitude and love.
All prophets hadn't. And last week, we talked
in a fair amount of detail about the preparation for prayer or so often we talked about the necessity of being in a state of cleanliness and purity, and so on. I'm wondering if there are any other preparations that are necessary needed before one actually commences, prayer or slot. There are additional preparations, of course, which is only the fitting for a prayer. First of all, as human beings when you go to meet any person who is in position, we usually try to dress properly.
By the same token, a Muslim also before getting to the prayer should be dressed properly doesn't mean that there's any particular style that is required to wear but he should cover his body properly. That applies to male and female in particular, in the case of a female since prayers took a devotion, and sometimes females would be praying also the same place where males are praying. The minimum requirement for women when they go to prayers is to have the entire body covered except for the face enhance. And they should wear something that's not transparent or tight, so that it does not describe the shape of the body so that the devotion really would be very complete.
It doesn't mean also, like I said before, that they have to wear any particular style of dress that's related to any particular culture. But these are just the qualifications or the minimum requirement, whichever style they prefer that would cover properly with the acceptable
addition to evolution, cleanliness, in terms of ritual and the specific washing that's prescribed. A person also should be fruit free from any impurities
In addition to that, a person also should select a place that's clean, should pay and someplace that's clean.
It Some people prefer to carry with them, or you as a kind of prayer, right, this is a very common thing that you find all over the Muslim world, that second destroyed here, if you can
focus on that. It's a very simple type of thing. It doesn't have to have this design. But this is one of the most common designs that you find in the millions, really, in different parts of the Muslim world. And once it's folded, it becomes almost like a mobile, mosque remodel place of prayer really, anywhere, one can just put it and pray. But of course, this doesn't mean necessarily that one has to have a particular rug or carpet like this to play on. It's just a convenience. But any other place, which is clean. And soccer can be a place where you can pray. For example, suppose you're traveling.
the only place you have is just clean sand or clean grass or whatever you can pray on. It is not so long guys, it's free from impurities, that would invalidate the prayer.
So it could be done anywhere.
But the place must be clean.
Well, this leads me into my next question, which I think you have and partially answered and that is the the
question of location for prayer. Is there any particular place any particular building, for example that Muslims must go to in order to perform the the prayer in terms of must?
except in few cases where you have congregational prayer. But the main requirement is that
a place that's clean and adequate, is eligible to be a place for prayer. So you can pray at home,
in the park area, and on the west area on the highways when you're traveling, any place that's proper, can be accepted as a place for prayer. And this is one of the sayings of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him, in which he says that the whole earth was made as a mosque or a place for prayer for me and my followers, that the whole earth is regarded as a mosque. So he continues, any person traveling or wherever he is, whenever the time of prayer comes, he can pray wherever he is, it does not of course mean that there is no specific buildings, which called masjids mosques as usually translated in English, where congregational prayer is held actually people are encouraged to
Pray in those mosques. But it's not a precondition for acceptance of the prayer people are encouraged to have it there. But it is valid if you have no access to nearby mosque that makes it flexible and easy and keep the person's relationship, personal relationship direct with God, anywhere he is under any circumstances without requiring particular ritual formality or specific learning.
Now, many people
say that Muslims paid pray
towards the east. Is that correct? No, it's not. It's one of the common errors. Some references now are predicting that Muslims pray neither to the east or west, they pray to God and in the direction of the so called Kabbalah, which is the Kaaba, the Polish lines of Canada.
the exact direction varies wherever you are on Earth. For example, in North America, the direction of Kava is not east, because that's the closest, not you know,
line connecting North America with the gala. So it depends on where you you're located. And
there may be cases where a person might not be able to determine exactly the direction of car but suppose you're traveling. And it's very difficult to find, in which case a person should try his best to determine the approximate direction and then he can go on and perform his prayer. In fact, there may be cases even where a person may be traveling, for example, in a bus, a train, or plane or ship for that matter for a long time. Like there will be several prayers, that he would miss his prayers if he doesn't pray
And you know, of course, that buses or planes keep changing direction, in which case the person again can just determine one direction, continue to prayers and not bother about the change of direction.
What is the significance of you're talking about the Kava, what is the significance of facing the direction of the Kaaba during prayer, when the Kaaba,
the holy shrine is the first house on earth to be built for the worship of the one God, built originally by Prophet Abraham. And perhaps its history even might go beyond or before Abraham. There are some indirect evidence in the Quran, if he had time could have explored that further. Because even when Abraham took his son Ishmael and his mother, Hagar, when she was a baby, he was saying, Oh, God, all I have left my progeny in a barren place near your holy house. And that was before he built the house because he built the house when Ishmael was about, you know, a young man who was helping him in the construction, so it must have probably, prior history to that. So in that sense,
then the Kaaba is the symbol, or centers of monotheism that goes back to all prophets. It is a symbol of the unity of the mission of all prophets throughout history, especially with the role played by Prophet Abraham and his descendants, Israelite prophets through Isaac and smartlight. prophets, through a smile, the last of whom is Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him.
In the initial period before Islam, the pagans perverted the use of the shrines by putting iPads in it. And maybe, maybe that explains that initially, in the early period of Islam, Muslims used to pray towards Jerusalem, which is also another holy place for Muslims. Until the psychological association of Canada with items was removed and the cowboy was cleansed from those idols, then Muslim started reverting back to the first and original house of worship on the hot air three, for the worship of the One God for 1400 years now, the Kaaba remains as the centers and focal point of the Muslim words, you could be in Indonesia, in Nigeria and Nigeria, wherever you are, and always
directing your face in prayers towards the camera. So it's a symbol of
unity under God.
Now, I'm Muslim performs prayer five times a day. What are the proper times for daily prayers? Well, there's one prayer at dawn, which is roughly depending on the season between let's say, 75 minutes or 90 minutes at most before sunrise, that's one. The second one is at noon, which is halfway between sunrise and sunset. A third one is in the afternoon, and that's roughly halfway between noon sunset is one immediately after sunset.
And then there is the night prayer, which, whose time starts when the redness and the horizon disappears, which, again, depending on location and season is roughly 75 minutes, an hour and a half, sometimes a little bit more after sunset. And it extends until midnight or even until dawn if the person would not be able to do it on time. So this is the
isn't necessary that the person performing prayers are so bad, it's necessary that he do it at these exact periods of time. It's preferable, but still, for most pray for all prayers on there is some range of time. The basic rule, except for the morning prayer is that the permissible range would be between the beginning of that prayer until the beginning of the next one, for example, when when prayer can be prayed or performed at noon, anytime before the mid afternoon.
And the same thing, mid afternoon should be performed anytime but before sun set, except for the morning prayer which should be performed in fact, before sunrise. So it's better to perform it in the beginning of the time. But there's some flexibility also, in terms of the permissible
period where you can, can do the prayers.
Now Muslims have a unique way of alerting
the Muslims of the fact that it's time for prayer, many viewers may not know that the introduction to our program is in fact the call to be part of a call for Muslims to come to prayer. Can you perhaps explain to us what is the nature of this call is and then if we have to get transcription give us some idea of the meaning of the call. Okay, so in the Muslim world for 1400 years,
this call for the prayer has been made
from 10s of 1000s, perhaps even hundreds of 1000s of mosques or houses, places of worship throughout the Muslim world. And sometimes even outside the Muslim world where there are significant minorities,
In the same formula, the same method that the
proper times which is the beginning of the time for each of those players, this is called event. And then
sometimes it's written is e m, but actually it should be a V like t th event at h n. And
it's like you said perhaps a unique way of announcing praise. Instead of using a material object to announce the prayer like a horn, for example, or bell. It uses human voice and human voice not simply announcing the prayer, but also
a special formula that affirms the faith in God. So it has summary really of the nature of the teaching of Islam. I wonder if it has time that you want me to tell you what the exact wordings are, or we have about two minutes left, perhaps if you could do in that space of time, if you could, very quickly and maybe we might have to come back to it next week and expand on a little more. Okay, well, initially, basically it's very simple. It says Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar twice, which means God is great. God is great. That's repeated twice. A shadow Allah, Allah, Allah. I bear witness that there is no deity, but Allah are the one and only God. And that's repeated also twice. I bear
witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah shadow Anima Hamada Rasulullah, that's again, repeated twice, Haryana Salah, come to the prayer twice. Hey, Allah, Allah come to success repeated twice, and then ending by saying once Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar, Allah, God is the great God is the great, there is no deity, but Allah or God, which an affirmation of faith in believing God, believe in Prophet Mohammed which implies believing all prophets call for the prayer corps for the success and then
rounding that up by praising God as the great and affirming faith.
Our time for today has gone brother Jamal who have to conclude our program at that. I want to invite you all back next week we'll continue our discussion of prayer or Salaam in Islam. Thank you for watching Islam and focus Assalamu alaikum peace be unto you