# Ihab Saad – Scrapers

AI: Summary ©
The speaker explains how productivity is calculated using various factors and factors like job conditions and operational efficiency. The loading and loading methods for various types of loads, including scraper engines, are discussed, including the importance of performance data for determining optimal loading time. The importance of maneuvering and performance data is also emphasized. The speaker explains the details of a construction project, including the scraper and its characteristics, and discusses the weight and resistance of the device, including the weight distribution and resistance. The importance of practicing and learning to improve speed is emphasized in upcoming exams.
AI: Transcript ©
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So on and so forth. So the productivity is equal to the rated

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capacity times the operational efficiency divided by the cycle

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time. So let's see how we're going to calculate that.

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Here we have

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different tables that give us different factors that affect

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whether it's the job conditions and

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that are going to primarily affect the fixed time and so on. How are

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you going to load it? Is it? Push, loaded single engine, push, loaded

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twin engine, push, pull, or self loading elevator. In our case, we

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have an elevator self loading

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scraper. And then we also have, if you remember when we discussed the

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trucks and the hauling and so on, if you are going to be operating

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on a very short stretch of road, then by the time you reach your

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maximum speed, you have to start braking to stop at the end of that

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stretch. So we're going to have a factor that's going to affect that

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maximum speed. Because once you calculate the maximum speed from

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the performance curves, you have to multiply it by that factor. And

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in this case, the factor for the short speed is going to be point

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four, five is going to affect the maximum speed. It's going to be

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only 45% of the maximum speed. And if you have a long stretch of

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road, like 5000 feet, then the factor in this case, going to be

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96% we are already familiar with this table because we have used it

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before,

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and what we have here on this slide is again, something that we

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have seen before, and we already know how to use it, which is a

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performance chart. In this case, it's for a scraper. We have the

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weight both loaded and empty. We have the effective grade

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represented by these parallel lines. And then we have the

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different gears. So we are going to use the weight to intersect

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with the effective grade. Go horizontally and check which gear

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is that going to be intersecting with, and then that's going to

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give us the speed and which gear are we going to be operating

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within.

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Here's another example of very similar one. Again, here's the

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loaded weight, and here's the empty weight,

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the push loading scrapers, again, as we have seen before, sometimes

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the engine of the tractor in front of the board is not enough to move

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that scraper, so scraper sometimes require assistance in loading to

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fill the rated capacity. Push, pull. Scrapers can work in tandem

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to help each other, as we have seen in the video clip that we saw

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a few minutes ago, non elevating scrapers need pushers to load

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because they cannot lift the soil on their own. Crawler tractors are

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usually used since they have better traction than wheeled

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tractors,

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especially on when you have a high

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resistance, then in this case, the crawlers are going to be better.

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We have seen with the wheeled tractor how there was some

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slipping, and then it overcame that slipping and started moving

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forward. The loading method can be either backtrack loading, chain

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loading or shuttle loading. We're going to see some pictures

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representing each one of these different types of loading.

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So when scrapers are push loaded, the material in the bowl gets

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compacted due to the pressure of forcing the material into the

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bowl. Now imagine the bowl is moving forward, the blade is down,

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so it's being filled as the ball is getting filled, the new soil

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compresses the old soil inside the bone already. So the density of

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the material in the bone is determined by the equation. The

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density is equal to 100%

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110%

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times the bank density divided by 100% plus swell, which means it's

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110%

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of the loose

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density of that sort.

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Now here we have this picture representing the the push

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phase. You have here the tractor, and then you have another tractor

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here in the back. It pushes it forward. And now, once the scraper

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is fully loaded, that pusher goes back to push another scraper. So

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they work. They are in parallel. Here you push the first one, and

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then only the pusher goes back. Now the tractor is going to move

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that ball forward, and the pusher here in the back is going to move

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back and it's going to push another tractor. So this is called

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the backtrack loading backtrack, because only the pusher goes back

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and it pushes another so.

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Scrape, whereas in the second one, called Chain loading, basically

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the second scraper is standing little bit ahead of the first one,

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so you push the first one until it's able to move. The ball is

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filled. It moves away, and then the pusher just positions itself

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in behind the next scraper, and then keeps pushing it and so on.

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So it's called, this is called Chain loading, because it's not

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backtracking to go back to the same original position.

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The third method is called shuttle loading. So basically, again, you

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push the first scraper until it moves out of the way, and then you

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go back the other scraper is facing the other way around, so

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the other way the other scraper, the second scraper, is moving in

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the opposite direction. So you go behind the second scraper and

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start pushing it. So this is called shuttle loading because it

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goes sort of in a circle or in a closed circuit

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to determine the number of scrapers and pushers,

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to determine the number of scrapers a pusher can load, we

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must determine the pusher cycle time. So the cycle time for the

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pusher is the time to contact the scraper, to touch it, and then

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time to push it while it loads, and then time to boost it out of

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the cut once the ball is filled, and then time to maneuver to

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contact the next scraper. And that depends on the method of loading,

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if it's going to be shuttle or is going to be backtracking and so

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on. If no performance data exists, the cycle time for the pusher can

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be estimated as

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1.4

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LS, which is the loading time for the scraper in minutes plus point

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two, five minutes, which is the time to make that contact and to

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start pushing that scraper. So it's point it's 1.4 times the

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loading cycle time for the scraper, plus point two five

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minutes or 15 seconds, basically

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the boost time, which is time assisting the scraper out of cut

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point one minute return time is estimated to be 40% of load time,

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because now the pusher goes back empty. It does not have the same

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resistance, so it can come back at higher speed. The maneuver time is

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point one, five minutes again to maneuver and to position itself

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behind the next scraper. Therefore, the number of scrapers

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that a loader can push is determined by the equation n. The

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number of scrapers is equal to the cycle time of the scraper divided

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by the cycle time of the pusher. CTS is the cycle time for the

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scraper, and CTP is the cycle time of the pusher. Let's

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look at an example again. It's going to make things easier.

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A CAD six, 630, 1e single engine. Scraper will be used to excavate

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the side, the side of a large fill to level a construction site. The

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soil is sandy clay, weighing 2700 pounds per bank cubic yard, with a

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swell of 18%

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the scraper has a 450 horsepower turbocharged diesel engine.

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The haul road is 4000 feet. The distance is 4000 feet, with an

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uphill grade of 3% from the cut area to the dump area. The running

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resistance is 8585

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pounds per ton, and the coefficient of traction is point

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four,

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A, D 8n crawler will be used to push the scrapers to load them to

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heat capacity. The project site has an elevation of 3000 feet. Now

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look at the problem, and each word has a certain meaning. Now here it

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gives us an elevation of 3000 feet. In the older problems that

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we have solved with other pieces of equipment, we had the derating

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factor due to the elevation. But notice here that it told us that

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this is turbocharged diesel engine. And we have mentioned

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before that turbocharged diesel engines are not affected by the

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elevation. So this is sort of a trick, if you do understand the

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nature of the engine, and it's not going to be affected by any

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derating factor, then this number is totally redundant, and we're

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not going to be using

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it. The scraper has the following characteristics, the rated

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capacity, 31 cubic yards, loose cubic yards, of course, the empty

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weight, 96,880

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pounds, the maximum load, 75,000 pounds, the weight distribution

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when empty on the drive axle is 67% rear axle, 33%

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and when loaded again, is sort of balanced. The drive axis, 53% and

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the rear axle, 47%

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what's the estimated production of the scraper in.

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Cubic yards, if the operation efficiency is 50 minutes per hour,

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and the scraper does not wait in the cut for a pusher and how many

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scrapers can a pusher load? So we're going to need to calculate

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the cycle time for a pusher and the cycle time for a scraper to

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determine how many pushers are we going to need. This problem might

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look familiar, because we have solved something similar to that

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when we're talking about haulers, when we're talking about trucks

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and the different types of resistance that they're going to

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face, and so on and so forth. So we're going to follow exactly the

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same steps.

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First of all, we're going to check if we're going to be weight

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controlled or volume controlled. The density of the material the

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scraper will carry is determined by the equation density. Now here

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we're going to apply this is going to be unique to the scrapers,

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because of the compression factor and the compaction factor that's

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going to take place. So the density is 110%

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the bank density divided by 100% plus the swell factor, which gives

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us basically 110%

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of the loose cubic density. Loose density, which is 2517 pounds per

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cubic yard. Per loose cubic yard, the weight of the load when filled

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to heap capacity, the capacity is 31 loose cubic yards. So the total

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weight is going to be 31 times 2517

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and that gives a total weight of 78,027

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pounds, which is beyond the load capacity of that scraper. Because

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the load capacity the maximum weight was 75,000 pounds, which

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means we are not going to be able to fill it to the heat capacity of

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31

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loose cubic yards. So what would be the volume that's going to be

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applicable? In this case, it's going to be 75,000 pounds divided

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by the density, which gives 29.8 loose cubic yards, which can be

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translated into bank cubic yards by dividing by the bank capacity,

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75,000 pounds divided by the bank capacity, the bank density, which

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gives 27.8

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bank cubic yards. So that was the first check. So we learned here

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that it's going to be weight controlled, not volume controlled.

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The next step is to estimate the cycle time of the scraper. With

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average job conditions, we get a loading time that's from the

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tables that we have seen a couple of slides before. We get a loading

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time of point seven minutes, spotting a delay time of point

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three minutes, and a dump time of point five minutes. All of these

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from the table, which makes the fixed time point seven plus point

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three plus point five. That's 1.5 minutes,

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the maximum rim rim pull generated by the scraper is going to be the

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coefficient of traction times the weight on the moving axles. So

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it's going to be when it's empty, the coefficient of traction is

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point four times point six seven, which is the weight on the moving

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axle, times the total load, the total weight, one empty, which is

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96,880

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which gives a rim pull of 25,964

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pounds. Now, when it's full, we're going to add the load of the soil,

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in addition to the weight of the scraper itself, the coefficient of

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traction is still point four. The weight distribution has changed

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because of the heavier load on the other axle. So it's times point

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five, three times 96,008 80 plus, the weight inside the bowl, which

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is 75,000 pounds, which gives 36,439

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pounds. So that's the generated rim pole.

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Now we have, we can convert that into tons, the total weight into

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tons, by dividing by 2000 which is 85.9 tons. That's to calculate the

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resistance, because the resistance is. The factor here that we use is

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in tons. So the resistance is going to be

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the force of the resistance going to be the rolling resistance, plus

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the grade resistance, which is 80 pounds per ton, the factor times

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the total weight, 85.9 tons, plus the grade 3% times 20 pounds per

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ton, per percent slope times the weight in tons, which gives a

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total of total resistance of 12,456

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pounds. Now the required drain pull to overcome the resistance is

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less than the generated drain pole. So basically, the scraper

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can move forward. The resistance is not going to be enough to stop

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the scraper from moving. We have seen here while it was empty,

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25,900

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almost 26,000 and when it's full, 36.4

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and the required the resistance is 12.4 so we are quite safe now to

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catch.

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The effective grade, because we're gonna need to plug that into the

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performance chart. We divide the running resistance by 20 pounds

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per ton, that's a constant. So 85 divided by 20, that's 4.25

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plus the already existing grade, 3% that gives us a total grade of

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7.25%

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when it's loading and when it's moving forward on the way back,

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we're going to subtract the grade. So we have 85 divided by 20, which

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is 4.25

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minus three. So we have still an effective grade of 1.25%

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using the effective grade on the performance chart, we get a speed

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of 10 miles per hour. To get the average speed, we incorporate the

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speed factor from the tables. We mentioned that

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for starting from standstill for half of the road and coming to a

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stop for the other half. So basically, if the road distance is

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4000 we divide it by two. So the factor from the table is going to

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be point nine. Two. Therefore the average speed when loaded is going

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to be point nine, two times 11. That's 10.12 miles per hour. And

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the average speed this should be 11, by the way, not 10. The

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average speed one empty on the way back is going to be point nine,

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two times 33 miles per hour, which gives 30.3 mile, miles per hour.

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And this is basically how we obtain these numbers. We plugged

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in the weight one loaded with a 7.25

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effective grade, and that gave us this line horizontally. We go

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here. We're gonna hit the fifth gear, and that's going to give us

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a speed notice for by the way, that the first numbers are in

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kilometers per hour, and the lower scale is in miles per hour. So

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it's going to be about 11 miles per hour, and that's what what we

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use in the equation.

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Now, when empty, here's the weight one empty, and we had an effective

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grade of 1.25

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so basically, if we keep just going, it's not going to hit even

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the 1.25 so we're going to use that speed, which is

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basically we're going to keep going down until we reach the

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maximum speed, which is going to be about 33 miles per hour.

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So in the 4000 feet, which we're going to divide by two, as we had

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just discussed,

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the time is going to be 4000 divided by the 88 to convert the

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feet into miles per hour

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divided by the speed. And that gives us a time of 4.5 minutes,

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moving forward, moving backward, the speed is 30.3 so we have 1.5

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minutes. Therefore the variable time is the sum of these two, 4.5

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and 1.5 that's six minutes. We had already calculated the fixed time

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to be a minute and a half. So the total cycle time is fixed plus

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variable. That's a total of 7.5 minutes. The Productivity is going

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to be the load per cycle

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times the number of cycles.

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So

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the load per cycle is 27.8 bank cubic yards

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times operation efficiency, which is 50 minutes per hour

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divided by the cycle time, which gives

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the total capacity, or total production, of 185.33

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band cubic yards per hour.

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The pusher cycle time is equal to 1.4 because we are not given any

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information about the pusher. So we're gonna use the equation 1.4

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the scraper load time plus point two, five minutes, which is 1.4

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times point seven, which is the loading time for the scraper,

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plus point two, five minutes. And that gives us and the point seven

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minutes is from the table that we have used before. So it gives us a

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cycle time of 1.2 minutes. Now if the cycle time for the scraper is

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7.5 minutes, and the cycle time for the pusher is 1.2 minutes, so

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how many scrapers can one pusher serve? The number of scrapers is

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going to be scraper cycle time divided by pusher cycle time. So

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that gives 6.25 scrapers, which is going to be rounded down to six

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scrapers. So one pusher can serve six scrapers. That's basically how

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we calculate the production for a scraper and the number of pushers

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and the number of scrapers, and so on and so forth.

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I hope that has been

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well understood, and we we have seen the solved example. Please

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make sure that you try to change the numbers and resolve the

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problem, to get more practice and to gain

00:34:54 --> 00:34:57

speed in solving the problems which are going to help you

00:34:58 --> 00:34:59

finishing the problems on the exam.

00:35:00 --> 00:35:02

Well, good luck, and I'll see you in another lecture. Bye.

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