# Ihab Saad – Confined Spaces

The speakers discuss the characteristics of confined spaces and the use of emergency services to help individuals with safety concerns. They provide detailed descriptions of the conditions and potential issues with accessing and accessing properties, including the use of oxygen, pressure testing, and the importance of refreshing and renewing air. The speakers emphasize the need for proper safety measures and the importance of breathing and cooling. The safety of workers is emphasized, and the entry permit process is explained. The importance of proper safety measures and the need for environmental conditions are emphasized.
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Music. Hello again. Today we're going to talk about confined

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spaces in construction. So we're going to have an overview of OSHA

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standards and unconfined and confined space hazards. So first

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of all, we're going to identify what is considered a confined

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space, and then we're going to talk about different

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responsibilities of different personnel who might be involved

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with that confined space, and how to have the maximum protection

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when we have to do some work inside a confined space.

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So the objectives are going to be to define the confined space,

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define permit required confined spaces. OSHA standards on confined

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space, and finally, understand what are the major hazards and how

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to protect ourselves against these hazards in a confined space.

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So the definition, first of all, a confined space, According to OSHA,

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is a space that it has to meet all of these three conditions. It is

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large enough to get into and work inside of. So if it's just a very

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small space where no one can get into, it's not considered a

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confined space in this in this case number two, it has a

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restricted means of entry or exit. Might have a small entry hole, for

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example, in this case, would be a confined space, and it's not

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designed for continuous occupancy. So for example, if you have a

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small closet for storage of materials or equipment or

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whatever, but it's that closet is large enough for someone to get

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inside and work inside, then it would not be considered the

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confined space, because the confined space is not designed for

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continuous occupancy.

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So when we talk about permit required confined space, not every

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confined space is going to require a permit. So in order to qualify

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as a permit, required confined space, or PRCs,

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a space is going to have to satisfy the first definition of

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being a confined space, which we saw on the previous slide, and

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then it is subject to unsafe atmospheres, toxic atmosphere or

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flammable contents or oxygen deficient, does not have enough

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oxygen for sustainable breathing. So if it has any of these three

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conditions, not all of them, just any of these, in addition to being

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a confined space, then for someone to work inside that confined

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space, they have to have a specific and special permit.

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Example, examples? Well, basically, this lecture is going

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to talk about the scope and application, the definitions,

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general requirements, including the written plans. What are the

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permit required? Confined spaces? What is the permit system? What is

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the entry permit? What kind of training the employees have to be

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subject to, what are the duties of the authorized entrance? Duties of

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attendance? Notice the definitions here. We have something called

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authorized entrant. We have something called attendant. We

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have something called entry supervisors. So these are three

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different positions or occupations. We're going to talk

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about them in detail, and then we're going to talk about the

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rescue and emergency services if someone loses consciousness inside

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that confined space that requires a permit, and finally, employee

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participation in that safety program.

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This is related to Appendix A, all of these are inside in your book,

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in your code book, permit required confined space decision flow

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chart. Appendix B, procedures for atmospheric testing. Appendix C,

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examples of permit required. Confined Space Programs. Appendix

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V, confined space pre entry checklist. What should you check

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before someone enters a confined space requiring a permit? Appendix

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E, sewer system entry and appendix F, rescue team or rescue service

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evaluation criteria.

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So we're going to talk about some of the characteristics of a

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confined space. First of all, the internal configuration, what may

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make it even more difficult to work with? In addition to the

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previous, previous conditions that we have mentioned, we're going to

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side size, which is the entry or exit portal, the way through which

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you get in or out, and space access orientation.

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So is it horizontal? Is it going to be vertical? And so on.

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With the internal configuration, we have either an open confined

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space or an obstructed confined space. An open confined space has

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no obstacles within the space. Example is a water tank, water

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tank, huge water tank, used for storage of water. It has a

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limited.

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Uh, entry port. It's not used or supposed to be for permanent

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occupancy and so on. And the other option is, in this case, rescue is

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less difficult, because, again, there are no obstacles that we

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have to maneuver around. The other one would be an obstructed,

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confined space, which has obstacles including baffles,

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mixing blades, scaffolds on the inside of that space. In this

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case, rescue is going to be much more difficult. To give you an

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example here, if we have the drum of a transit mixer,

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that's a definitely a confined space.

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It is obstructed because it has baffles on the inside. It has the

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blades that rotate the concrete inside that the drum, and it has a

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limited portal. It's sloped. So again, access by itself is not

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going to be easy. The easiest thing, so in this case, rescue is

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definitely more difficult than the previous example.

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The second one is elevation. We have either non elevated or

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elevated. If it's non elevated, Access Portal is less than four

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feet above grade or above ground, above the level where you are

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entering from. So even if it's on a suspended slab, it's less than

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four feet above that slab, the surface of the slab, in this case,

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again, rescue is less difficult because no one has to jump in. You

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can just

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get in without much hardship. The other one is elevated. If the

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Access Portal is four feet or more above the grade, you have to

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remember that cutoff number, which is the four feet. So if the Access

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Portal is four feet or more above the grade, then rescue is more

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difficult. So if it has obstacles and it's elevated, that definitely

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make it, makes it a double way.

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The third one is the portal side. Okay. Size. The Portal size

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unrestricted, is an opening of larger than 24 inches in the least

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dimension. So if it's a rectangle, the shorter side is going to be 24

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inches. If it's a circular port of entry, then it's going to be the

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diameter that has to be at least 24 inches. Then in this case,

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again, rescue is less difficult

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restricted an opening of 24 inches or less in the least dimension. In

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this case, rescue is more difficult. So again, we talked

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talked about the portal size. The fourth one is going to be the

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orientation, the space access orientation, if it's horizontal,

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then most likely the portal is going to be easier to access.

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Someone can even crawl in if the portal is located on the side of

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the permit. Space rescue is normally less difficult. But if

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it's vertical, and the portal is at the top of it, most likely is

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going to be more than four feet high. So if the portal is located

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on the top or bottom of the permit space, vertical portals may

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require special patient packaging to rescue to extract the employee

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from that space. So result, the rescue is normally more difficult.

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So these are four descriptions or characteristics of confined spaces

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that we have to take into consideration when designing our

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program and our rescue procedures.

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Here are some examples. This is a storage tank. Now, which

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conditions are going to be here? If it has baffles on the inside,

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then it's going to be obstructed. Obviously, that's elevated, most

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likely that's going to be more than four feet above ground. Well,

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although the storage tank itself is horizontal, but the entry

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portal is vertical, not horizontal. Now, depending on the

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dimensions of that entry portal, the size, if this is less than 24

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inches, that's going to make it even more difficult. Silo again,

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although it is vertical, but the entry portal is horizontal. It

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might or might not have baffles, so again,

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it's going to have some of the limitations of a confined space.

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And obviously a silo is not designed for permanent occupancy,

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and there's going to be lack of oxygen inside silos. Many people

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unfortunately get trapped inside and they die.

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A pipeline, although it's open from both sides, but again, it

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might be too long, something like a culvert here, for example.

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Again, it's at we can't even say that it's at ground level, because

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it's on water in this case, which makes even things even much more

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difficult to access it and extract people from the inside. So again,

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this is these are examples of confined spaces.

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Now we have to learn about some toxic gasses and their weight and

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their volume and their density, whether they are lighter than air.

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So they're going.

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Gonna float to the top, or they are heavier than air, so they're

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gonna sink to the bottom. So we have here, for example, three

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killers, three toxic gasses. Gasses. One of them is methane,

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which is lighter than air, so it's gonna accumulate close to the top

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surface.

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This is the manhole, for example,

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carbon monoxide that's called the silent killer because it's

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odorless, colorless and you can distinguish it. That's why,

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unfortunately, even in residences, you might have the carbon monoxide

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detector that can detect an increase in the concentration of

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carbon monoxide, which deprives the air of its oxygen trying to

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become carbon dioxide. So the price the air of the oxygen,

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that's why it's asphyxiating. And the third one is the hydrogen

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sulfide, H, 2s which is heavier than air, and that sinks to the

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bottom. So if you are in an environment that has methane,

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crawl, because the methane is going to move above if you are an

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environment that has hydrogen sulfide, then stand up, because,

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again, it's going to try to sink to the bottom. If you are an

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environment that has carbon monoxide, definitely get out,

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because it's going to be suspended in the middle, depending on the

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height of that confined space.

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Here are, again, some examples of confined spaces. You kind of need

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a ladder to access it, and that hopefully is going to be more than

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24 inches in diameter.

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So here, for example, we have different people helping the

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entrant, the

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person who's going to work inside. And obviously they have the proper

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breathing apparatus, like a scuba diving gear with compressed air on

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their back. So and they have the gas mask and or the oxygen mask

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and everything. So they can work inside the confined space that has

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either noxious gasses or poisonous gasses or flammable gasses or even

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lack of oxygen.

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Some other precautions would include, for example, having a

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ventilating fan and a trunk hose to keep bringing fresh renewing

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the the fresh air inside the confined space, if you're going to

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do any welding inside the confined space, or if you're going to do

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any painting which has some fumes that emanate from that paint. So

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in this case, we need to refresh and renew the air inside that

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confined space.

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And we have either air purifying respirators,

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which can either be a half mask that covers only the nose and

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mouth, or it can be a full face piece that covers all also the

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eyes, which might be affected by the toxic fumes. So do not use in

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oxygen deficient atmosphere, because that does not provide

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oxygen. All it does is purify the existing air. So if the existing

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air is deficient in oxygen, then these are going to be totally

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useless, therefore do not use in oxygen deficient atmospheres.

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On the other hand, air supplying respirators, these can be used in

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oxygen deficient atmospheres because here it has the air either

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attached through a hose to the tanks or carried on the back,

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which is the self contained breathing apparatus, SCBA, scuba,

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called scuba, basically, and here's the supplied air respirator

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with auxiliary escape only SCBA. So there's going to be a tiny,

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maybe they're going to be a tiny canister of oxygen just for the

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escape, but otherwise it's going to be totally separate from the

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person working inside the confined space.

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Some things that you should know about the the atmosphere inside

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the confined space, that there's a certain limit within which you

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should not work with oxygen, 6%

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by volume. In this case, it's going to be different, difficult

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breathing. Death is going to happen in minutes

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if it's less than 19 and a half percent,

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uh, oxygen concentration, minimum for the safe entry. So do not

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enter the confined space if the the oxygen concentration is less

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than 19 and a half percent, let's say 20%

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23 and a half percent is fine. That's called oxygen enriched

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at 16% oxygen concentration, you're gonna have impaired

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judgment and heavy breathing at 14% is gonna be faulty judgment,

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and rapid fatigue at 6% is going to be almost impossible to

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breathe, and that's going to cause asphyxiation. So the safe range is

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anywhere above 19 and a half, and this is the dangerous range with

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its different danger limits.

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Now, in order for an ignition to happen, I.

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Ignition requires three different pains. First of all, a flammable

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atmosphere, which is going to result from air. These three

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components, air, you have to have air to add to help the combustion

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gas, vapor or dust, that's the combustible and source of ignition

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that's going to cause a spark to ignite that combustible in the

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presence of air. So this is the ignition triangle that we try to

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avoid

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forming these three conditions at the same time.

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Now let's talk about the different responsibilities of people who are

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going to be dealing with permit required confined spaces.

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The first one is the authorized entrant, and that's going to be

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authorized by the employer to enter a permit required confined

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space. That's the definition authorized by the employer to

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enter a permit, confined space, permit requiring confined space.

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So that's the person who's going to work inside that confined

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space.

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All employees required to enter into confined spaces must be

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instructed as to the nature of the hazard involved, the necessary

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precautions to be taken and the use of protective and emergency

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equipment required. So to become an authorized entrant, you have to

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satisfy these three conditions. You have to know what are the

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natures that, what's the nature of the hazards involved, whether it's

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oxygen deficiency or toxic fumes or whatever. You have to know what

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are the necessary precautions to be taken, whether you have to work

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at a certain level because the gas is going to sink to the bottom, or

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what kind of protective equipment and you should have on you when

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entering that confined space, and what are the different symptoms of

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exposure to that hazard and how you should leave that space

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immediately.

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So the duties of the authorized entrant is to know the hazards

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regarding the space, know the signs or symptoms and consequences

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of the exposure to hazardous atmosphere. So if you feel dizzy,

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for example, or if you cannot breathe easily, that's a sign of

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oxygen, oxygen deficiency, know how to use the equipment properly

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and communicate with the attendant, which is the second

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person here, to enable attendant to monitor the entrance status, so

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the entrant has to satisfy all of these four conditions.

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Duties of the authorized entrance also include exit from space as

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soon as possible, whenever an evacuation order is given by the

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attendant, or an evacuation alarm is activated, which might respond

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to oxygen, monoxide, for example, or the detection of a certain gas

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or fume or smoke, symptoms are observed regarding exposure to

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hazardous substances, whether these are reflected through a

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change in the color of the skin, for example, or something like

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that.

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So as we just mentioned, you, exit from the space as soon as possible

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when an evacuation order is given or an evacuation alarm is

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activated or symptoms are observed regarding exposure to hazardous

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substances or other prohibitive, prohibitive condition is detected.

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So for example, if there's a lack of visibility or or something else

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that's going to be preventing you from working properly, instead in

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that confined space,

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going back to the definitions we learned about the entrant. So the

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second position that we talk about is the attendant. The attendant is

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a person stationed outside who monitors the authorized entrance

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and performs certain other duties. So that's someone who basically is

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there to keep an eye on the entrant and make sure that

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everything is going fine inside that confined space,

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and some of the duties of the attendance very similar to the

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duties of the entrant, they should know the hazards regarding the

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space, know the signs or symptoms and consequences of exposure to

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the hazardous atmospheres, is aware of the behavior effects of

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exposures to hazardous atmospheres, etc, and continuously

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maintains an accurate count of authorized entrance. So you may

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have one attendant for several entrance in the confined space,

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you should be able to keep a constant

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accurate count, count of them through visual connection or

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verbal communication with them while they are in the confined

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space.

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The attendant has to remain outside the permit space during

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entry, until relieved by others, because, again, if they enter the

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confined space, they become an entrant and not an attendant, and

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they lose that capability of warning others about hazardous

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atmosphere or environment inside that confined space in.

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Absence that could smother or crush a person. So if someone's

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working inside a silo, for example, a grain silo being

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engulfed by the grains, that's a that can smother by deprivation of

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oxygen or crush due to the pressure of that huge amount of

00:25:18 --> 00:25:19

grains, it can kill a person. A

00:25:23 --> 00:25:27

entry is when a person passes through an opening into a permit

00:25:27 --> 00:25:30

required confined space. The entry includes the ensuing work

00:25:30 --> 00:25:32

activities in that space.

00:25:34 --> 00:25:38

Entry permit, or just permit, in this case, is a document provided

00:25:38 --> 00:25:42

by the employer to control the entry into permit space.

00:25:45 --> 00:25:50

A permit required confined space. Is a confined space as we

00:25:50 --> 00:25:54

described it before. A program means for controlling the entry

00:25:54 --> 00:25:58

into the confined space and for protecting employees from the

00:25:58 --> 00:26:02

hazards so we need. The ultimate goal is to protect the employees

00:26:02 --> 00:26:04

who are working inside the confined space,

00:26:06 --> 00:26:09

as we mentioned before, oxygen deficient atmosphere is an

00:26:09 --> 00:26:13

atmosphere with less than 19 and a half percent oxygen by volume.

00:26:14 --> 00:26:17

Oxygen enriched atmosphere is an atmosphere with more than 23 and a

00:26:17 --> 00:26:21

half percent oxygen by volume. You should remember these two numbers,

00:26:23 --> 00:26:27

hazardous atmosphere is one that may cause employees to be injured,

00:26:27 --> 00:26:32

killed, incapacitated or impaired again, through lack of oxygen or

00:26:32 --> 00:26:35

something like that, from one or more of the following causes.

00:26:36 --> 00:26:42

First, flammable gas, vapor or mist in excess of 10% of its lower

00:26:42 --> 00:26:47

flammable limit. When we talk about a flammable gas or vapor or

00:26:47 --> 00:26:53

mist, it can only ignite within a certain range. The bottom line of

00:26:53 --> 00:26:57

that range is called the lower flammable limit, below which it's

00:26:57 --> 00:27:03

too lean to ignite and the upper

00:27:04 --> 00:27:10

flammable limit beyond which it's too rich to ignite. So it doesn't

00:27:10 --> 00:27:13

not, does not have enough oxygen or enough air to help with the

00:27:13 --> 00:27:18

ignition. But anywhere in between the LFL and the UFL, the lower

00:27:18 --> 00:27:21

flammable limit and the upper flammable limit. This is a

00:27:21 --> 00:27:22

dangerous situation.

00:27:23 --> 00:27:26

Another condition here is

00:27:27 --> 00:27:32

that causes a hazardous atmosphere is combustible dust at the

00:27:32 --> 00:27:36

concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL, again, if it's at

00:27:36 --> 00:27:40

the lower flammable limit or more, that's dangerous.

00:27:42 --> 00:27:47

Oxygen. Concentrations below 19 and a half or above 23 and a half,

00:27:49 --> 00:27:53

and any other dangerous atmospheric condition like carbon

00:27:53 --> 00:27:54

monoxide or

00:27:55 --> 00:27:56

H 2s in

00:28:02 --> 00:28:05

so what is going what kind of information is going to be

00:28:05 --> 00:28:09

included on the entry permit? And this is going to be found under

00:28:09 --> 00:28:10

1910, one of 140 6f,

00:28:12 --> 00:28:17

in the code book the permit is going to identify the permit space

00:28:17 --> 00:28:22

to be entered. The purpose of the entry, date and duration of the

00:28:22 --> 00:28:25

entry, for how long people can work on the inside, identification

00:28:25 --> 00:28:29

of the authorized entrance. Who are they? By Name identification

00:28:29 --> 00:28:32

of the attendance. Again, who are they by name

00:28:33 --> 00:28:37

identification and of and signature of the supervisor, the

00:28:37 --> 00:28:41

entry supervisor, who, as we mentioned before, could be either

00:28:41 --> 00:28:45

an entrant or an attendant. Hazards of the permit space to be

00:28:45 --> 00:28:46

entered, whether it's going to be

00:28:48 --> 00:28:51

poisonous gasses or nauseous gasses or lack of oxygen or

00:28:52 --> 00:28:56

flammable mist or vapor, or whatever control measures taken to

00:28:56 --> 00:28:59

isolate hazard, what kind of protective equipment, for example,

00:29:00 --> 00:29:03

acceptable entry conditions, whether it's going to be during

00:29:03 --> 00:29:07

the day or at night or things like that, results of initial and

00:29:07 --> 00:29:10

periodic atmospheric monitoring. So we're going to keep monitoring

00:29:10 --> 00:29:14

the atmosphere to make sure that the conditions do not change, thus

00:29:14 --> 00:29:18

it necessitating someone to get outside, or the use of additional

00:29:18 --> 00:29:22

protective equipment and rescue and emergency services available

00:29:22 --> 00:29:27

if someone is hurt on the inside, how can we extract them, and what

00:29:27 --> 00:29:30

kind of medical attention are they going to

00:29:32 --> 00:29:35

need? Communication procedures between attendance and entrance,

00:29:35 --> 00:29:40

whether it's going to be just voice or visual contact, or what

00:29:40 --> 00:29:46

other kind of contact equipment, PPE, alarm system, etc. PPE stands

00:29:46 --> 00:29:50

for person protective equipment, of course, alarm system etc,

00:29:50 --> 00:29:54

required for entry and rescue operations and any other necessary

00:29:54 --> 00:29:58

information and other required permits, like if it's going to be

00:29:58 --> 00:29:59

considered a hot.

00:30:00 --> 00:30:03

Environment, then hot work permit is going to be needed in this case

00:30:03 --> 00:30:03

as well.

00:30:06 --> 00:30:11

So basically, this is a review of what a confined space and what's

00:30:11 --> 00:30:14

the permit required confined space. And we talked about the

00:30:14 --> 00:30:20

three main duties that we have as an entrant, as an attendant and as

00:30:20 --> 00:30:23

an entry supervisor, and then we talked about the information that

00:30:23 --> 00:30:28

should be included on the permit itself. So what is a confined

00:30:28 --> 00:30:30

space? Again, this is just for review. We mentioned three

00:30:30 --> 00:30:32

conditions for a confined space.

00:30:33 --> 00:30:38

A person can enter, difficult entry and exit, and it's not for

00:30:38 --> 00:30:42

continuous occupancy. What's a permit required confined space.

00:30:43 --> 00:30:46

It's a confined space with hazardous atmosphere requiring a

00:30:46 --> 00:30:47

specific permit.

00:30:48 --> 00:30:52

Should an attendant rescue an entrant? If the entrant needs

00:30:52 --> 00:30:56

help? Yes or no, well, it's not yes or no. It's somewhere in

00:30:56 --> 00:30:57

between. It's

00:30:59 --> 00:31:02

the attendant can enter

00:31:03 --> 00:31:06

or can help, as long as they do not enter the confined space.

00:31:06 --> 00:31:09

Because once they enter the confined space, they have not an

00:31:09 --> 00:31:13

attendant anymore. So basically, okay, but attendant cannot enter

00:31:13 --> 00:31:17

the confined space. What is the leading cause of confined space

00:31:17 --> 00:31:20

fatalities? As we have seen in most of the cases that we have

00:31:20 --> 00:31:26

discussed, it is the noxious gasses or the lack of oxygen. So

00:31:26 --> 00:31:27

it's going to be asphyxiation,

00:31:29 --> 00:31:33

and that basically is our lecture for today, for the confined

00:31:33 --> 00:31:35

spaces. I'll see you in another lecture. You.

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