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Umar Farooq – The Four Caliphs – part 10

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Bashar Shala

Channel: Bashar Shala

Series:

Episode Notes

Dr Bashar details the lives of the four greatest men who lived after the Prophet Muhammad (Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him), the Caliphs of Islam, the rulers of the Islamic Empire that swept across Arabia, Asia, Africa and even so far as Southern Europe.

Episode Transcript

© No part of this transcript may be copied or referenced or transmitted in any way whatsoever. Transcripts are auto-generated and thus will be be inaccurate. We are working on a system to allow volunteers to edit transcripts in a controlled system.


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He from the 100 ila was double select your destiny Allah say Aegina Muhammad wa ala alihi wa sahbihi ah May Allah Melinda and I have found our fan every now and then can I was it 90 Manasa configurable Allah Nina me

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we continue inshallah, on our study of the life of our father and follow up the second success of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, we have studied many aspects of the life of our mouth, probably Allah be pleased with him. And we continue on today was what we started last session, which is the, the conquest of a sham brother brought my attention to the the words that we're using, the, the translation is not completely accurate, the word fetta. Or

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it's not exactly conquest or conquering. And the word when you use the verb conquer, you may understand the submission or the subject to make other people subdued, and to your own will. But it is an Islamic meaning is to make all people subdue to the word of Allah Subhana, Allah, Allah and submitted to the will of Allah subhanho wa Taala freely. So there is a difference between what what the word conquer and conquest may mean in English. And the word that the Arabic the truth of that is and for two, which means basically, to widely open the doors for whatever it is, and in this in this particular meaning it is for Islam and for believing in the last panel with God. And we went too

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quickly about whether Islam was spread by the sword to rebut and speak of the accusation against these magnificent battles and series of tools, that the Sahaba may Allah be pleased with him, led into the zonulin Persia, and we talked spoke about the answer is no slam was not spread by the sword. We brought some Islamic facts as our last panel without acid in the Quran. There is no compulsion in religion led crime, indeed, but the Bayesian approach to human life, it is all clear to mankind, then there's historical facts that refute this, this accusation, which is the protection of other religions under Islamic rules, and there are so many historical documents and treaties, to

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actually clearly state and show how Muslims guaranteed the rights of non Muslims and the conquered and and the fertile areas, then there is common sense facts, you just have to read history. And you have to look at the world today. And understand that there is no way that Islam could have spread by the sword. There is the largest Muslim population is actually in countries that were not militarily conquered. And like Indonesia, and Malaysia and other countries, that we have the largest concentration of Muslims, they were never invaded, they were never conquered militarily. And another common sense fact is the the grade than the large Christian population. And Muslim countries like

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Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, countries that have been under Islamic rule for the last 1400 years. And yet still, there's a prosperous and free, large Christian community. And if you contrast that with what happened in Spain, after the the, the kingdom of Ferdinand and Israel, invaded the Muslim countries and wiped out the Muslim religion, and we know the history, how the history tell us about the Inquisition, and the torture and the persecution of non Catholics, and under that rule, so we conclude that definitely slab was not spread by the sword. But what why these, this war? Why these conquests why these two, and we spoke also about that and we said the Byzantine and the Persians

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actually started attacking Muslims, and started battling Muslims since the early days of Islam. And they're people that are chose Islam freely, were persecuted and they were killed regardless of their position in society like the governor of mine. His name was familiar to

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me, and he was killed on the days of the Prophet sallallahu wasallam for embracing Islam heraclius called upon him and executed him for the crime of embracing Islam freely. So Muslims had

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duty in the obligation to secure delivery of the message to all and guarantee the free choice for those who want to embrace the slam, and wants to accept the slam, as the true religion from a loss of Hana with that.

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And we also went over where and when these two have started, it started on the days of Abu Bakr, Serbia, and always have no support as far and as just as all he was, may Allah be pleased with him and may be pleased with his first successor, Abu Bakar.

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Give the credit where credit is and credit installing and launching this for to was to move across the river First Army that he sent he sent you the world of public debt during the web the tumultuous time in the history of Islam. Yet still Abu Bakr Siddiq had the bravery and had the vision to understand the importance of spreading Islam beyond Arabia, for whatever it takes. And he said the first army to tame north of Arabia by hiding the blue side of the laughs. And he had two battles fighting side, one with a Byzantine and the allies of the Byzantine the Christian Arab tribes in northern Arabia that actually rebelled against the treaties that they signed and they guaranteed was

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so deep. And then when he defeated them, the Byzantine themselves send an army to, to attack the Muslims and to fight the Muslims. So hard he didn't say he didn't ask asked backers for help. And Abu Bakr realized and he knew that he has to continue on the path of the Prophet sallallahu wasallam and secure the Muslim Ummah, from the northern borders from the north western borders of Arabian Desert here, and we know the Prophet sallallahu wasallam sent an expedition to water, and then he led an expedition himself in the book to to find the Byzantine. So it also started by the prophet sallallahu sallam. First and foremost, I would represent four armies. The first one was led by I'm

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going to say the blast to Philistine.

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And the second was led by Swahili Hashanah to the area of an Odom and by his he did not disappear to unveil car, which is south of Syria, and buy

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them in July to hemps invasions, which was central for the Byzantine control of a sham. What a sham basically is the area that lays Eastern of the Mediterranean shore, and it includes today countries part of Turkey, it includes the entire country of Syria, living on Palestine, and Jordan, east of Jordan River. The area of that was controlled by Persia is what is occupied mostly by an EOC. today and Iran, and its spread also to Pakistan and Afghanistan that is there today.

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He at the same time of Rebecca saduak, same College Dublin Valley to start battles in an era against the Persian Empire.

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class as they started their skirmishes with the Byzantine armies all along in Syria, deep down into the Syrian desert, he realized that it is better for them as the Byzantine started preparing a large army to face the invasion of the Muslims and the the Muslim armies that are coming to Syria to a sham

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house, with his military intelligence suggested to Aveda ninja to gather all Muslim armies under one banner and to collect all Muslim armies from the areas of Syria into this area here that around the river of Yarmouk, which is this small attribute very to the Jordan River, and this is on the hills of NGO land, which is, which is called a Jedi at that time. And the Muslim army gathered at the root, there were 30,000 of them, and they were faced by 300,000 Byzantine soldiers that gathered to face them, so a bourbon ninja walks into Abu Bakr asking for help. And Abu Bakr Siddiq asked Khalid Meanwhile, he needs to go to help the Muslim army and we are moved and he took with him 6000

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soldiers along this pilot lead and he traveled in a very ingenious, expedited way across the Syrian desert and that we spoke off last time and he reached a verbatim ninja rock in record time, and the Muslim army gathered in a room and at the time at the last day

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of Abu Bakar Casa de its life and his rule, the Battle of Yarmouk started and as Rebecca died during that time, and that was a very defined very important victory for the Muslim armies that actually started and and dominated the picture and the field of operation, if you will, in a sham and the Muslim victory, at least a very large Byzantine army was very decisive, and the Muslim armies and the Muslim army settled in the area of failure, where the Byzantines fled to Damascus Dynamesh and hence, and they fled to an important city at that time called Finn, and which was a fortress at in What is today's Jordan and it was close to the Jordan River.

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At that time, we studied how the news came that Abubakar Meola, the police was had died, and Omar

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became the halifa. And the news came also with removing highlight of the Walid from his duties as the general commander of the Muslim army as he was chosen by all the leaders that were gathered in India. And by appointing a board of VEDA ninja rockne, Allah be pleased with him as the general commander of the armies and we went into that in details.

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Now the Aveda genre is in charge, and the Muslim army is in the Golan Heights. And those of you who understand the geography, the Golan Heights is a hilly area. And it's above

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it you can see from that hilly area you can you can basically dominate into Damascus, which is in a valley surrounded by some mountains. And then the entire Jordan area is actually in the descent. It's a small land, most of the areas around the Jordan River and there is no higher hills than the Golan Heights where you can actually watch over the entire Palestinian area. So this other than in Java and Khalid Milani position their armies in a very strategic area. But then from there, they have to make a decision to either go to Damascus, or go to hell, or head on to the Sham or to hence or to really spread down we know there were four armies. And later on by Khalid knowledge the Fifth

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Army should be read divide the lodge first that they had, they had some strategic decisions to make.

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In Java,

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he was a very diligent follower of commands. And he faithfully executed what is commanded of him and that was part of the reasons why he was appointed instead of highlighting the lead as a general commander, so he sends to Abu Bakr to hammer apart and then Medina asked him, What should we do? Where do we go from here? He tells him gave him the the hiding of the victory of alien group. And he said, Where do we go from here? Mr. Maha pop answers in his letter. He said this law he

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said that will be denied.

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He says head on to the metro to Damascus. Fenn hadn't he said start with it in your for front in the front of your armies. Then the highest motion it is the fortress of all it is it is today the capital of Syria is a very strategic position in a sham we see how it is very central to the Sham the entire area of Russia.

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To them, look at him that it is the capital and we know when Conoco used to come to a sham he used to settle in Damascus. That's where he would meet the delegations and that's what he would be.

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He said What should we do uncom Lf lfl he said keep the people official in the south busy. That means send them somebody to keep him busy so they do not attack your real.

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behind in the coup de la AMT in huria, y la Philistine.

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He said sent brigades to Philistine to keep people busy to just have some skirmishes enough to not let the enemy attack you from the back and also to helps so nobody can do turn around or attack you from where you don't expect them to. So subhana wa, pop had very good military outlook to the battlefield. He said, thanks a lot, Pablo. Dinesh pasalic Allah. He said even if these small armies if they conquered if they were able to dominate these areas before you

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You take Damascus, then this is what we want this is great, while in

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the hallowed the most present, if it is there, that conquest delayed until it wants to kind of die that gives you a Damascus that heals and feed you must come in in secret we have a DA Ha. He said let in Damascus who can hold it and

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then let it and then let let the other armies gather. And then he said after that after you handle the masters in public and

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electrical, he said gather the army again. So when you attack you attack as an army, but you keep the busy or you keep the other armies busy with smaller armies and smaller platoons. I said then you go to defend. And then if Allah subhanaw taala gives you for him, then head on to him. So he basically gave them the strategic outlines about what to do first and what where to go from there. So the initial target was Damascus, then the second was for him. And the third was hebbs.

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Law, are they his halifa. And he sent an hour to 72 for him with a small army. And he helped himself took the most of the Muslim army into Damascus.

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So the Muslim army that was around the MOOC sent a small army to fit him. And the most of the army with Aveda ninja went on to Damascus.

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the geography of Damascus is such that to the area, the area of the West, there is a mountain you cannot attack the masters from that area. There is also a river at the northern north western part of Damascus called berada, which is a small river which still goes on today. And so and then around the masters from the east and the south. They're fools and orchards, a lot of greenery, it's a lot of

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great farms for apples and a lot of fruits. And again, this is still on today. And it's still there today. And it's called the booth after the match what's called the orchards of Damascus. So that ninja rock settled the army into the rooftop into this areas of fields and orchards and greenery. And the palaces of the commanders of the Romans were in that area because it's so beautiful and so abundant in fruits and water and etc. So most of the higher up elite palaces were in that suburb of Damascus, if you will, and they found all these palaces empty, as most of the Byzantine went into the fortresses, and were behind the walls and the gates of Damascus, which was very well fortified.

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At that time.

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Huracan Hercules sent a small army from hymns to keep the Muslims busy, and it was just only about 500 fighters. And

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that sent them a small army into the northern areas of Damascus, where they

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fought them and defeated them.

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As far as the Roman army was led by the stars, who was the the the the governor of Damascus, and the military general was the hand. The hand was one of the generals that led the Battle of Iraq and he was he fled, he was defeated and he fled to Damascus, in Damascus, with a 60,000 Byzantine professional fighter, twice the number of people of fighters that fought in the Battle of Leon Mook.

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And in the Muslim army, as led by Abu Zubaydah Ninja, we know there were around after the MOOC, they were about 3000 fighters, they had 36 and they were supplied by 4000 more, and they were about 40,000, facing about 600,000.

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Problems focus at 16,000 600,000.

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fighters in Damascus, there were 300,000 in a year, and twice as much as that there are 600 more than half million soldier and that fortified city

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and to go over the description of of Damascus at that time, and it is noted in theory

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that the

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Because at that time was a great city was surrounded by very high walls and enormous gates. And some of these gates actually are still standing today. And and I didn't actually to copy some pictures and and I just, it just slipped my mind. But I can get you some pictures of the gates of Damascus that's still there today, including the gate of Al jabya that Khalid himself walked through during the conquest of Damascus.

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And it was filled with churches. And before the churches were built, it was also very important Roman city. It's one of the oldest, if not the oldest, still inhabited city in history. Of course, we know there are many ancient cities like Oregon, etc. But they're all not actually actively inhabited. Damascus has been inhabited for the last 3000 years continuously and still ongoing. So there is a pagan place of worship a huge temple in the middle of Damascus, which was converted by the Christian Byzantine into a great church called the great church of Damascus. And later on, that was converted into what is called today's nyiad Mosque of Damascus. There is also a center of trade

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and the center of commerce commerce in a shin.

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And the Romans took advantage of the river of Baroda. And they let they they dug trenches, and around Damascus and they filled it with water. So Muslim army or any invaders of Damascus cannot cross easily and they can be

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thrown with arrows and they can be

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they can be killed under the walls of Damascus

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had a plan and he put in the heart of his army, the leader that he trusted the most, which is Khalid had been rallied. And he put armor class on one side of the RV and he himself took side and the audience as a board that would put the interests of the battle before the glory of fighting and he left Harley didn't leave the heart of this army and he puts on the on the horse back on the horse riders Yakubu venom and he put on the on the infantry on the marching army, the show off the move.

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from the east he allowed Harley to attack as we said, that was the the place where attack in Damascus was really the easiest as it there is a mountain on this side and a river on that side. So highly the elite attacked from the eastern gate and from the southern gate arborvitae. Abuja wash himself. And there is a gate called bap Tula, which is against still standing today is attacked by amber glass. And another gate called Bad Fridays in this area in the southern Eastern area of Damascus. And it was attacked by Hezbollah. And there was a gate called the small gate that was attacked by ezydog, na DCM and Byzantine held their defenses and we said Damascus was really well

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fortified. And the router came under the gates and what the Muslims were under the the gates of Damascus. And the Byzantine said that these are desert people. These are people that are not used to hot weather. They're not used to cold weather, they used to heat they get cold, they cannot stand the cold. The night, the cold nights of Damascus, and they felt that if they held requisitions until the winter, then the Muslim army will flee back will withdraw back and then they'll have chance to break the siege of Damascus. Hello, Bill. Well, it had a different plan. What he did is those palaces and the loofah around Damascus they're all empty. So what he would do is he would lead take

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a small group of the army weapons the rest have all night and then exchange that the next day and let another group go last and he would continue the the giving this to everybody in the room palaces of Roman of the Byzantine leaders and the the area around Damascus is filled with trees, fruits and all that. So we take advantage of that. And the army keeps being supplied by what the Romans themselves planted and prepared for Damascus. So that did not work. And it continued on and higher than when he was studying the walls and the gates of Damascus and he kept around and he started putting plan how to get into the city.

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And what he did is he assembled

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ladders of ropes and he put hooks on at the end of the ladders, and he prepared them, where few people can go up to the top of the wall and hook the ladders, and and make sure that the rest of the army can climb up and sneak up. And he waited, according to a poverty on a night, where the Romans had a feast, they had some type of religious or social feast. And during that night, the Muslim had some intelligence that the woman usually drink, and, and celebrate. And there will be some out, relaxing in the guard, that that God the walls of the masters. So during that night, he

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took a small group of command commanders of Euro and he with problem which by many accounts aparcar, what he was sent to one battle, the commander of that battle said to the police at that time, he said, I need a group of 1000 men and he sent them a copy. And he said, I asked for 1000 and you send me this man and he said, this is 1000 This is worth 1000 rent. So kind of the rallied handpicked few fighters that are very well trained, and they're really willing to give their life in the way of Allah subhanho wa Taala. And he would then climbed up the ladders into the gates and he said, If you hear that, that idea from the walls, if you hear a snake and then cross the water into the gates,

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see if they cross the waters and the gates are closed, and they will be stuck between that the water and the gate. And it'll be easy to they'll be easy target to the to the Roman arrows. But he said when you hear the tech do that means we're controlling the gate. So you go on and and you cross the water. And that's what happened. And they climbed up the walls and they controlled the the the first gate and they made the tech pier and the first group of the Muslim army went and and washed into Damascus. And that was how appleberry narrated the story of the conquest of Damascus. However, for for just the honesty of what what, that there is some dispute of how this exactly happened. This is

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the wonderful, beautiful story and it's disputed by some historians that actually

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Damascus was not completely conquered by the invasion he was there was a treaty between the government of Damascus the Byzantine government of Damascus. And the Muslim army after the siege took its toll on the morale of the Byzantine army instead of taking the stairs. What they thought that the Muslim army will not stand for long winter it was the Romans that did not withstand the long Siege of the Muslims and the relentless attack of them some army and they gave the mascus into the Muslims and a treaty.

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Another historian in the book that is bigger when you hire for urban Casio. Now it said that it's actually half and half is both stays worked right as the Muslims actually were able to invade part of Damascus and and the battle in Damascus started inside Damascus was the Byzantine called upon the leadership of the Muslims to afford a treaty and the rest of the city was given to Muslims peacefully under the the treaty. And that was by most accounts in the month of Rajab on the 14th year after Hydra, and that would be about the year 636 after Christ. Now that'd be male mouthpiece on him.

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Ed

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coming here, okay.

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So

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the Damascus now became the first big city that falls into the Muslim armies in the area of a shin

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after a sham was conquered, other than ninja rock wanted to secure the areas around Damascus. So he said Kyler didn't need his most again trusted and most influential commander

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And we see how they had a wonderful working relationship pilot was not

00:30:06--> 00:30:52

offended by being relieved from his duty. And he was not resentful of our Vedas leadership. On the contrary, he would be a bogus right hand assistant and who would follow up or obey does commander ship into the very end actually, as we will see. So he said kind of number one East into the value of your car, the value of the cars in currently and living on but between the car and Damascus there is actually almost a straight path. And there is the the mountainous area, probably in a bill can tell me about it more than I know. And there is a huge number says very hard to cross, except for just an opening called a dimension, which is an opening between the value of the car and Damascus,

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there's highway now actually that connects Damascus to Beirut that goes through that area. So what if they wanted to secure that valley because through that opening, an onslaught of Roman army can actually come. So he sent a holiday to the valley of the car. And there is a city in LA called dial back, which is against their standing today. And how they didn't when he was able to control the area and peacefully have 3d with the people of the and back. And then a man came from a small town. And it's called the hill of the roots, which is now not a small town. It was just a small Roman fortress called an enemy was controlled by a man called Sinead who tried to attack the Muslim armies

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and the cop and the city of stand back and

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forth him and he killed cnn killed many Muslims in that area in an area called didymus move. And the Muslims continued to fight and they were able to defeat that that roman empire that Roman army.

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So what is today known as Lebanon was secured by two leaders, highly the Middle East, and yazeed of NaVi Sofia. And that was the conquest of what is today Lebanon which is known as the Valley of undercard that time and the hill of the route

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to the south to the area of London except for him for him which still lighter skirmishes around there. But this was an important fortress at that time, but in the in the area of the Eastern of the East port of Jordan River, Aveda ninja rocks, and shakeela Hasina, who will control that area for the Muslims. So now that ninja rock was ready to go into the second phase, and follow the the the commands of Mr. Pop and to attack the fortress and the city of fed

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in 100,000, Byzantine fighters in that fortress in that city,

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and the Muslims sent them an army to fight them. And there was most of the Muslim army that was in Damascus after leaving people in Damascus to defend the city. So according to some historical accounts are anywhere between 20 and 40,000 Muslim fighters but there's really no accurate number that I could get. And they went into second that was the main army that went into fed

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and after leaving people in Damascus, as I said, Now controlling the the North controlling Lebanon and controlling most of Jordan went into this important city of friends. Now this Palestine Philistines still not control. Mind you we'll talk about that, but they controlled Lebanon, Damascus and Jordan. So he was attacked by the Muslim army led again in the heart of the of the army by highly dependent worried on the right by Abu Zubaydah, ninjalah on the left by Aboriginal OS, and the infantry was led by Al W. Lenin, and the horsemen were led by Brahman as well.

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And when Aveda got to the area and his military until his military shrewton, he gave entire leadership he stepped down temporarily and gave the entire leadership of that particular battle to deal with mahasin because Shaheen was initially sent to this area, and he scouted the areas of the East Jordan River. So he was the most acquainted with what is going on in that area. He was most acquainted with the Byzantine fighters in that area. So he gave him the the general leadership

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That particular battle.

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What the Romans did to, to, to, to defend Finn is they had as we know for Hell is by the Jordan River. So what they did, and it's it's a it's a it's almost a valid. So what they did is they had water ducts and they flooded the Muslim army with water, they they lit the water go into where Muslims were camping. So Muslims were in the swamps of mud around the city of fed. So that will basically prevent the movement, the fast movement of the army, whether it's the horsemen or the infantry will just make it difficult for the Muslims to fight and these are desert fighters, they do not, they do not do well in mud, they do not do well in the swamps in that fighting. So that was the

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Roman, the Byzantine plan in defending said

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and what they did and their leader as narrated in altobelli, his name is so clever. So I don't know what is the exact pronunciation of the of the Byzantine name. But this leader tried to after he flooded the Muslim camp with water, he tried to do a nice attack on the Muslim army and night fighting, they did not have night vision goggles at that time. And in night fighting at that time has to be very well organized. And only a professional army can do this. Because they have to be well coordinated. Otherwise, they'll start killing each other. Because it's in the heat of battle or they don't know each other. They don't know what's going on the army can actually get busy fighting

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itself and in the night. So he had the professional army and he thought with his professional army, he can attack the Muslims at night. And they do they have basically an amateur army. And they they may be surprised and may be taken by that night attack.

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And they attacked the Muslims in the mud in the night. And they felt that they can actually conquer the Muslim army and ignite in the mud against the professional army, the professional army was slaughtered under the walls of fencing. And in the morning supply lab was nowhere to be found. He was already fled the battlefield at night and the Muslim

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the Muslim Muslims defeated the Romans and part of the video feed but what what happened that the Muslims actually took the they made a very intelligent trick against the the the Romans, as the Romans were kicking ignite into the the swamps where the Muslims supposed to be silent and started pulling the Muslim army back. So the Romans were coming in and the Muslims were treating in very organized way. And the Roman army became trapped in the swamps and became trapped in the mud. And then the Muslims, instead of retreating, they came upon them, and they could not they were stuck in the mud. And they were able to defeat the Byzantine army that way

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and

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fell into the Muslims again in the 14th. Year after Hydra 636 a b, c, a

00:38:27--> 00:38:28

C.

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After that, to continue with the plan of farm out of local pop, the third target would be hips.

00:38:45--> 00:39:43

So what he did is he wanted to make sure he's central ideal, as we said, to make sure that the area of Eastern Jordan is now completely clean. And under the the control of the Muslim army, he spent the last to fall asleep. We will shortly try to study that in details as the the effects of El codice and lids and, and the area of Philistine is very beautiful, very beautiful historical lessons to learn from that. And he himself with Khalid as he wanted to take most of the army up to him, which was the second largest city in a sham and the second most important area after Damascus so he wanted if they guaranteed hemas then they would be able to basically subdue the entire Sham if they

00:39:43--> 00:39:50

will have control over most of the Sham except they'll fall asleep while they send alas

00:39:54--> 00:39:59

no Hamsa is not the second largest city actually in in the area of of a sham now obviously there

00:40:00--> 00:40:16

is a man which was not even an important city to be mentioned in history at that time now it's a very large city. The there is Beirut, which was again only a small fortress fortress in that time. And now it's it's how many millions in Beirut.

00:40:17--> 00:40:33

That 3 million, Damascus has about five and upon the North has about about three, three and a half, hence itself has about maybe a million. So it is not the likes of big city that's not the largest city in the area. So

00:40:37--> 00:40:43

hence is still there. So the same thing, hence our house idea. Yeah. Yeah.

00:40:45--> 00:40:47

And the last is called the mesh obviously is

00:40:49--> 00:40:54

the Third Army went to hemps house was

00:40:55--> 00:40:58

protected by a gentleman called Cobra.

00:41:00--> 00:41:12

And he was this is just this the names of the cities that were the most important battles are most important events, we will talk about Charmin lived Jerusalem and engineer de Nicola return all of them to Muslims in sha Allah.

00:41:14--> 00:41:23

We just go into Damascus was given the protection protection of Damascus was given to you as an abbey soufiane

00:41:24--> 00:41:35

and harlot and lived most of the army north to him between hymns and Damascus, there is probably about 100 guys.

00:41:36--> 00:41:38

So they live that army up to him.

00:41:40--> 00:42:28

And Cobra himself led an army, he knew that every time the Muslims besieged city, they get it. So he felt maybe he will have a chance if he gets outside. And he tried to find the Muslims outside hems, and Hamas was not, it was very affordable, but not as plentiful as Damascus. So if Damascus fell, he felt that hymns will be probably an easy prey to the Muslims. And he started fighting them outside hemas. And at the same time, he did a very intelligent thing is he took a small army, the smaller army than the main one and he wanted to attempt the masters. And he felt like if he gets around the army, get into Damascus captured Damascus there will be a very destabilizing factor in the battle

00:42:28--> 00:42:58

the Muslims will have to retreat, they will have to go back and and regroup outside assure, and that will give the Byzantine so he was very shrewd fighter. What he did is he took that army and he won. He went east to the desert and he wanted to go to Damascus. However, the Muslims were even more shrewd, and they had good intelligence. And the news got to Yes, he did navisphere who did not wait for Torah to get to Damascus? He actually

00:43:00--> 00:43:04

actually I don't I don't know how much his army was at that time.

00:43:06--> 00:43:45

Yeah, well, you mean how many antennas there were probably in the hundreds of 1000s. But I cannot reference that and and again everything Sharla we will not be able to reference what we will not Yes, we will not try to estimate. But again, I mean, there was 300 600,000 in Damascus, this was the second largest. So you expect people in the hundreds of 1000. They're fighting no more than 40,000 Muslims in general, the entire army now and the Muslims are now spreading some infection, some in Damascus someone to follow spoon someone to secure the odor. So the army was hired and Aveda has to be smaller than 30,000 at that time.

00:43:46--> 00:44:45

So first of all, I wanted to do an a turn around and try to attack the Muslims. And yazeed faced him outside Damascus. And he called for harlot. He said, Why don't you come and attack to draw from the back. So instead of him instead of the Byzantine, attacking Muslims from both sides, now Khalid led a small army from the back and he squeezed closer between him and he has he does not disappear. And the army was was with those that are wiped out completely. It was completely wiped out outside Damascus, and that basically shaken the protection of Hamas completely, and Khalid led back the army around Hamas to join abort Aveda after defeating that movement by the Byzantine army. And the Battle

00:44:45--> 00:44:59

of hence happened and that was in the middle of winter. The Siege of hemps was in either December or January. It was in the COVID

00:45:00--> 00:45:39

Time of winter. And what happens is the people of hemas after fighting and fighting and fighting, and Andy could not break the siege, they send to Abu Zubaydah and ask them for a treaty. And he gave them the same deal, the same 3d of a healthy mesh of people have the mesh. And the treaty basically said that they get the Muslims get half the produce of Hence, the other half go to the people that are inhabiting the area and hence, and he took the jizya from people in Hamas, according to their wealth.

00:45:43--> 00:45:45

And hemas Aveda

00:45:46--> 00:46:17

set up an army and he liked the the he gave protection of Hamas and the leadership of the the small army of humans to build a robot. And to add to that have been a lesson. So they were both in Hamas. And Hamas, by the way is where the grave of highlands of New Orleans ended up to be and the mosque the greatest loss of Hannah's called the mask, a pilot and worried was his tomb is

00:46:19--> 00:46:21

hired after that continue to

00:46:24--> 00:46:44

the military phases, establishing law and order in these areas. And there was a governor on each of these main cities, and Harley didn't really gave was given chemistry. And later on, he was released again, by American support as we studied in detail last time.

00:46:45--> 00:46:52

And on the screen was on the 15th year of Hydra, and 637 at sea.

00:46:57--> 00:46:58

And

00:47:00--> 00:47:06

after that, Khalid went up north to the city of Aleppo, of Helen.

00:47:07--> 00:47:11

And he besieged that area for a long time.

00:47:12--> 00:47:20

And he was able to conquer a loved one and then I brought some pictures because I'm from there. It makes it easier for me here's

00:47:21--> 00:47:24

Yeah, I'm from there. Yes, that's my birthplace.

00:47:25--> 00:47:59

This is the city of Hamlet. And the city of hub has not really is changed some but not much. There. The walls of headup is around something called like the Acropolis. It's called the citadel of Aleppo, which is on a hill it's like the Acropolis of Athens to famous Acropolis and itself but it's really a large castle surrounded by very high walls. And this around the castle. And this is just a new picture really this is this is not old. And this was all filled with water.

00:48:00--> 00:48:46

All that around that was filled with water and then there's the high rolls around the this Acropolis so people on top of there, they can number one see everything. And you cannot surprise them you cannot sneak up onto them they they're on top of the hill and everything around them is below them. And they can defend it very well. It's very hard to take that that that type of natural defense. So high level we rallied state around halat for a long time. And nothing happened a lot of these fighting did not go anywhere. So what he did, and this is the the main gates actually of the car, see how high This is? Just to give you a perspective, this is a picture from the last century. And

00:48:46--> 00:49:38

it shows how high these worlds are and how high these gates are and how how very hard to actually try to go in and conquer that city. So what he did is he tried to same trick he did in Damascus he waited for a feast, he waited for a time that they will be busy celebrating. But they he knew that they will not be celebrating with an army around the city. There is a mount small mountain that is a little bit to the west of of the city of Hamlet. It's called the mountain of an ocean at that time, and now it's called the mountain of El Ansari because one of the inside was buried there. So he took the army at night and he pretended that he's given up. So he just deserted camp, let the fires go

00:49:38--> 00:49:59

fade away. And it's like the Muslim army has just given up on getting the city. He took the entire army and hid it behind that mountain and ignite. He sent some scouts waiting for the celebration to start. And as the celebration started in the city, he took the army at night and they start

00:50:00--> 00:50:43

into the into the heart of the city. And they took most of of the city around the castle. And then the castle surrendered. After that, peacefully and highly different Waleed was able to secure most of of the area of Syria after that fighting, and Hello. And then he went even north to the area of law which is in today Turkey, and he secured basically this entire entire territory of what is today known as Syria and Lebanon. And it was all came under the Muslim government on the 15th years of Phaedra. Now Subhan Allah the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam passed and in the

00:50:44--> 00:51:27

lead in the in the 10th year after Hendra, this is only five years after the death of the Prophet sallahu wa sallam remember when the Prophet sallahu wa Salaam was surrounded in Medina, in London, and he was hitting the digging the trench with his own apps and he said, Allahu Akbar, he had a sham. He said, Allah has given me a sham. The people were looking and smiling, laughing. He said, What is he talking about? He is surrounded with this army is about to be wiped out. And the same people that were digging the trench with the Prophet sallallahu wasallam were with the army and Damascus and hymns and hell up and in everywhere, beloved murabaha

00:51:28--> 00:51:57

is Edith NaVi Sophia and the same people. So this miracle that they heard from the mouth of the Prophet sallallahu wasallam become true and they saw the promise of Allah Subhana Allah Allah, wa the law in Medina, an annual as anything, that Allah subhanaw taala will give them this earth as long as they continue on adhering to the word of Allah Subhana Allah they defeated the largest superpower on Earth at that time.

00:51:58--> 00:52:02

And they pushed them back from their most beloved territory in a sham

00:52:03--> 00:52:41

and actually some Sahaba died on on under the Wars of Constantinople at that time. So, they pushed all the way into the entire turkey into the the the the area of Turkey and back on minor Asia and that was the Sahaba that were the people with the Prophet sallallahu wasallam and inshallah we will stop here and next time we will inshallah continue on the final phase of a sham, which is fell asleep. May Allah be targeted to the Muslims in sha Allah, and and we will see how I

00:52:42--> 00:53:10

was able to secure most of Philistine and how Omar upon himself came for the final for the final stage of Philistine which is the factor of a goddess Sharif, may Allah again return it to the Muslims and Mean while hamdu Lillahi Rabbil alameen wa salatu wa salam ala Sayyidina Muhammad wa ala alihi wa Safi is right. Maybe we can have time for a question or two, which is.

00:53:19--> 00:53:39

The question is, does history Tell us what happened to the 600,000 soldiers in Damascus, as the as we said, there's conflict there is some dispute about exactly how Damascus was taken. The most opinion say it was either a mixture of 3d and battle or 3d.

00:53:41--> 00:53:51

And when you have a treaties, and these soldiers will not be taken lightly, it will be set free, not to fight Muslims again. Now just to go over the geopolitical

00:53:54--> 00:54:50

aspect of that area, most people in these areas were oppressed, they were very happy to see somebody taken the tyranny away from them to free them from the tyranny of the Byzantine, who were controlling them, taxing them, and using them into the service of the greater desire. So we see that how these areas turned an emery 3d in humps in Damascus, every 3d stated that everybody can keep your religion but these areas are overwhelmingly Muslims. Now, so many, many people converted. And and evidence for that is what a lot of lucapa brought to my eyes have been jovell and Abu Bakar that he said, The so many people coming into Islam in Damascus, so I have to send you to teach them. I

00:54:50--> 00:55:00

have to send more people into this a sham to teach people how to do and he sent people to Philistine. He sent people to a sham and there was

00:55:00--> 00:55:18

There was University after university school after school being open to teach people this new religion. So if you have to historically know what happened is most people converted into Islam or paid and jizya or be remained under the rule of Muslims. Yes.

00:55:36--> 00:56:02

The question is did the Dharma have a problem with our VEDA delegating these responsibilities he did not. He relieved kind of from his duty away that would use harlot over and over and over again, Mr. As we studied last time was not against cut, um, I had a policy that would not cut, it would not go along with that it had a different view of what needs to happen. But

00:56:03--> 00:56:35

I've had no personal conflict with cognitive nuvali. This is very important to understand. And as long as you guys going with the main theme of things that Bob Drew, which is here's where you start, here's what you do, here's where you go. And this is what they do. Then there is no problem whatever Aveda wants to do on the battlefield, that was up to the generals commander on the battlefield to decide what to do and whether he gives it harlot or Shaheen, or hon asked that was his business. And Mr. Mahaprabhu was fine with that.

00:56:37--> 00:56:42

We have to stop and shop a lot for selected a shop. Yes, well, maybe I come

00:56:49--> 00:56:50

of

00:56:52--> 00:56:53

how brilliant strategist

00:56:55--> 00:56:56

or intelligent that

00:56:57--> 00:56:58

question is,

00:57:00--> 00:57:04

how am I to communicate to the face of Madeira?

00:57:06--> 00:57:43

Because it's a long stretch. About a month, month. Yeah. That's why it was important not to leave a lot of commander ship in the on the battlefield. But the general theme of things was controlled from Medina. Now these control of a sham took place over three years, started on the times of Abu Becker, and ended up about three years into our new Hobbs rule. So there was enough time for a lot of communication and a lot of battles. And we just summarized them quickly. But these these battles took took about three years to secure the area of Russia.

00:57:48--> 00:57:48

Yes.

00:57:53--> 00:57:54

priority

00:58:01--> 00:58:46

number one priority was to settle the mystery at first was to settle the place of worship. And and they had treaties like in Damascus, they had half and half 3d, according to the treaty, they would have half the houses. So they took the main temple and the main church in the middle of Damascus and they split it in half. And half of it was the church and the other half wasn't as good. They put on a domain yet there were few Christians and they had they they gave the the entire place to Muslims which became the Umayyad mosque, Masjid in the city, but that was number one priority is to establish is there is a stack left now, the first thing is a solid is to establish the place of

00:58:46--> 00:58:47

solid, yes.

00:58:55--> 00:59:05

Right for Shanthi as religion, the idea of truth, he was not really established in the Christian religion until the year 325. This is an important comment

00:59:06--> 00:59:06

of

00:59:08--> 00:59:48

the year at that time, there were two main ideology at the Unitarian or monotheistic religion or ideology by Linnaeus, and the Trinitarian, which has the pole kind of Christianity, which was really asserted by Constantine. And he himself was not really a believer. He just he wanted, he decided that he's going to be Christian, but they have to decide on what Christianity is all about. And truth he sounded better and closer channel

00:59:50--> 00:59:59

from the year 325 to the year 570 are on fire and suddenly there was another battle a decisive battle that all those who believe in monotheistic

01:00:00--> 01:00:20

belief, which is the followers of Linnaeus, and Christianity, they really were killed. And there was a battle in Egypt called the Battle of Alexandria. And all the information all the Bible's all the facts, everything that the Christians have, regardless regarding Linnaeus and the teaching of Linnaeus

01:00:21--> 01:00:32

was all burned, and it was all destroyed. And this is also documented in the Christian church. So at that time, the people who are living in the Middle East

01:00:33--> 01:00:46

and the area when brother Bashar was talking about for this theme, Lebanon, Syria, and all the way to Egypt, all those were mostly the followers of Linnaeus, Unitarian.

01:00:48--> 01:01:01

So whenever they saw Muslims coming, and they read and learn about the Islamic faith, they knew that this is the same religion, as their religion was. So they it was easy on them to accept Islam and become Muslims easily.

01:01:02--> 01:01:08

So this is a fact also, which is it has to be mentioned for brother

01:01:10--> 01:01:11

agrarian.

01:01:12--> 01:01:45

No. So that's why if you look at now, Christianity, the Christian that's present in the Middle East, it's mostly what's called the western church, because Christianity kind of left the Middle East to Europe and then brought back imported back again, a little of the Eastern Orthodox Church, which is really present in the base of it is in Syria, the the the main Church of Syria, these are Eastern Orthodox, Catholics are in Egypt, you know,

01:01:46--> 01:01:50

orthodox friends and there's another orthodox the,

01:01:53--> 01:01:59

there another what we call orthodox, if you follow also meaning straight ideology

01:02:00--> 01:02:09

in, in Ethiopia as well. So, there are these are different churches very, very different than Catholic and Protestant and other churches.