Qawaaid Fiqhiyah Pt 1

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Ahsan Hanif

Channel: Ahsan Hanif

Topics: Fiqh

Episode Notes

This talk was given at the Green Lane Masjid on March 28, 2017.

Episode Transcript

© No part of this transcript may be copied or referenced or transmitted in any way whatsoever. Transcripts are auto-generated and thus will be be inaccurate. We are working on a system to allow volunteers to edit transcripts in a controlled system.


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Mohammed Allahu Baraka

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smilla rahmanir rahim al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil aalameen

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Lama Sunday wa Sallim wa barik ala nabina Muhammad wa ala alihi wa sahbihi is Marian, my bat

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Welcome to another one of these monthly seminars that we're having on the different sciences of Islam, Mashallah tala T's science, as has been mentioned her prized

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is on the science of uncovering the fear. acquire the fear is sometimes translated as juristic Maxim's, and we'll go into the definition and the name Michelle and Michelle while

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So as we've said before, the purpose of these seminars and one of the goals and objectives is to inshallah Tyler, familiarize ourselves with some of the important scientists of our religion, that the scholars of Islam have dedicated their lives to studying and to

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and to writing about and so on and so forth and spreading and teaching over the ages. And these are the tools and the sciences, the scholars of Islam till today use and they benefit from and the teach, and the students of knowledge learn in their journey to or in the journey of knowledge.

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This science in particular, the science of applied Delphia has a very close connection, and link to the science that we studied and we discussed last month. For those of you that attended or remember or watched online, we spoke last month about the science of the principles of physics, and that science and this science require them to have a very close connection, and inshallah will speak about this, as well. One of the things that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam was sent with it is considered to be from his hassall is, it is considered to be from his special attributes that a large social gift to him. It was a miracle that was bestowed upon him is something that we call

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jalama Allah kelim comprehensive speech, whereby the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam would often see Mika steemit, he would see something which consisted of very few words, but they had very deep and comprehensive meaning. So the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam if you look at many, many of the Hadith that you find, when you pick up a book of Hadith, you will find that they are relatively speaking short, the prophets are lower and he was send them was not someone who would give long sermons. And he wasn't someone that would sit and talk for hours upon end. Howdy salatu salam. And that is why his companions are the language marine were better able, and it was easy for them to

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memorize the Hadith, his sayings, and his statements and to relate them because they were often short and concise. But even though they were short and concise in the number of words, they held deep meaning, and they have many, many benefits. And a single one of those statements, there are many, many issues that we can derive from it and take from those statements of the Prophet salallahu alayhi wasallam. This science of science of inquiry that does something similar, provided for peer is the science that summarizes all of the rulings of fick. That's what it does in a nutshell. So when you study physics, and for those of you that have studied any type of fit, whether it be the

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physical model of solar, the effect of Hajj, or fasting was the carrot or the fit of transactions or marriage or divorce, any chapter effect. One thing that you will realize is that there are often hundreds, if not 1000s of different issues in a single chapter of felt many many issues that the scholars mentioned

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Under scholars differ over the scholars bring in a single chapter on and book of

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those many, many issues that the scholars mentioned. And they bring, and they discussed, it's difficult to be able to summarize and memorize all of them, even if you're studying someone that's studied and more versed in the sense of structured is difficult to be able to recall, to memorize and to summarize all of them. So what the scholars did was that they went through all of those muscles, and all of those issues affected all of those chapters. And they found that there were overarching principles that many of those issues came under, there was a maxim or a rule or principle that many of those issues came under. So rather than having to memorize so many of them,

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and obviously the scholars don't memorize and they study each and every single massala in its proper place, but a way of summarizing all of that knowledge is to focus on those Maxim's so once you know those Maxim's it's easy for you then to be able to recall many of those issues of of

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this is what we'll cover, it'll clear does.

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The term and Coverity here is made up of two words, the name of the science of political for Korea, the word of art is the plural of Florida. And Florida means a principal means a foundation, it means a rule, and often in English in order to differentiate it. And again, this is one of the limitations of the English language as opposed to the eloquence of the Arabic because we have a pseudo fact that we often translate as the principles of kawari, the faqeer could just as easily be translated also as the principles of phip because there are certain clarida are very similar in terms of their linguistic meaning. But in order to differentiate the two to show that there's a distinction between

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these two sciences, or social factors normally call the principles of an algorithm for clear is normally called juristic Maxim's juristic Maxim's So, the word Maxim also means the type of principle or a rule or a code of conduct some something along the similar line, but it is therefore easier to distinguish between the two. So our is the is the is the plural of the word Clarita, which means that principle or that rule, and a lot so Jill, obviously mentioned this, on the web, carried on with your furry Brahimi polare, the middle bait, a lot of socialism in the Prophet Ibrahim alayhis salaam, raised the foundations of the karma. So that is a candidate is the foundation and

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the principle upon which you build the word we discussed last month, when we were speaking about also on Fifth, and how it refers to the practical elements of our of our religion, that the do's and the don'ts and so on and so forth. Those things that Allah has made as part of our actions and our responsibilities as Muslims, the two when they come together and as a science, what they refer to, are those universal or those overarching principles that cover many of the issues of faith. Right. And we will go into this in slightly more detail inshallah, when we go into some of the issues concerning the science, but but they are the overarching principles or the Maxim's that cover and

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bring under them, many of the issues of

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the science is

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studied, and it is a slightly advanced science like was treated as something that you study when you're when you're specializing in the sciences. But it is extremely important for a number of reasons. One of the greatest benefits of the science is that it helps you to develop the ability to use your

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your knowledge effect, and the principle and and the rulings that you have amassed under, under your study effect. It gives you the ability to have a juristic mind. So when someone comes to you with an issue, even if you can't recall necessarily that particular issue, it is something which helps you to develop your juristic mind, because it gives you overarching principles that you can always refer to. So for example, one of the most famous Maxim's that we will study and we will speak about in detail is rural democracy, how everything is judged by its intention. That is something when the scholars, they looked at the canal and they looked at the Sunnah, and they looked at all of the

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issues of fit that they study, they found that this is something that enters into more or less every single chapter of their in our religion, a great deal and a great amount revolves around your intention, in sada in widow in transactions in marriage in divorce many things and a lot of soldiers we know in our religion will judge us not only upon the physical action that we perform, or the words that we say but he will also judge us upon our intentions. And what our

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hartshorne so therefore, intention this party that this this this Maxim and omorovicza Casa de her affairs are judged by their intentions.

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Now, when someone comes to you and they have an issue that they bring to you, even if you don't know, the specific issue, and it's not something that you're well versed in, and so on and so forth, you know that there is an overarching principle. And that is that your religion is based upon your intention, your the bad things that you do in terms of salah and soccer, and so on and so forth. They are based upon your intention. So if someone comes, for example, and they pray now for accounts, and they hadn't played solid Lhasa, but their intention in their heart wasn't to play a song, it was to pray just for a cause of nothing. But then they realize after they finished the

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Salah that they didn't play I

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didn't play or something, Mr. Hassan, and these four cards that they prayed, they come to you and they say, Why can I just make it I saw, that wasn't my intention when I prayed. It's not something that I intended, but I prayed for and that's for foreign force, the same thing. So therefore, can they just count as awesome? What would you say?

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You'd say no, because we have an overarching principle in our religion, that your actions are judged by the intention, you say, No, it doesn't count as your hustle, go and play your song. Now, with that intention of playing Salatu Lhasa, right? You have two people that come into the masjid, at the time of, you know, like, maybe a Salah, or maybe they're traveling or something else. And two people perform the exact same action. Both of them are praying. One of them in their heart, they have the intention of praying and obligatory prayer. Maybe he's traveling he Mr. Lord comes into the mission to bring two records. And the other person is also putting two records in that same machine. But

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they're not praying are sort of in their intention in their heart they praying to here to mystery, the two records of entering into the mystery. Those two people, how do we differentiate them? How do we know what they're doing is not based upon their physical action, because both of Sala both are prayer, it is by their intention. So this science helps you to develop that ability to know the rulings of Islam, and to develop a juristic mind. One of the other great benefits and importances of this science is that it helps make your knowledge of fit easy for you, gathers many, many issues of fit into a single principle. Now that principle that I just gave you the example of actions or

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affairs, or just by their intention, that is something that you can apply into more or less every single chapter of every single chapter effect, there is somewhere that that principle can be applied. So all of that study now, and by the way, that doesn't mean that you don't study and you don't need to go and you know, it's like a shortcut. No, that's not the meaning. But it's something which helps you so tool, which helps you to understand your effect and to apply it and implement it. But once you've studied so much of that, rather than trying to remember it, oh, insula, where did it come in the intention is in Moodle in A, B, C and D, you have a single principle that gathers all of

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that and unites it for you. And therefore, it also helps you from the benefit is it helps you to stop forgetting helps you to revise your knowledge to keep it fresh within your mind. And therefore it is something which shall allow Tyler as you study more and more further, you will find yourself that when you study these Maxim's you find how they themselves are applied within these different within these different sciences of Islam. Also from the importance of the science and its benefits, is that it allows you to understand the objectives of the Sharia the goals of the Sharia, and this is a separate science in itself inshallah, maybe one of these monthly seminars we will do on Mikasa.

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The Sharia are what are the overarching goals and objectives of our Sharia. But one of the things that provided for clear does at times is it helps you to appreciate some of those objectives. So when we know and omorovicza consider your affairs are judged by your intention. We know that that is an overarching objective of our Sharia. That is not just about your physical action, but it's also about the state of your heart. And Alonso and gentlemen, He rewards someone he doesn't just look at the physical action, whether they performed it or not. He also looks at the state of their heart. And so we have many a Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam we know on Yom, Yom and so

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on and so forth. That alarm so in turn will reward people not necessarily only for the action, but they will differ in reward based upon their intention. So someone for example, will give a smaller lesser amount in charity, but the reward will be greater than one who gave more in terms of quantity in charity. And that goes down to the reward. The Prophet Allah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, for example, that perhaps the person prays, and they only take half of their prayer, or a third of their prayer or a quarter of their prayer.

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And perhaps the person prays, and they have nothing from their prayer. That person prayed, they fulfill an obligation they did the actions they perform the Salah, what is the Hadith referring to? it's referring to the reward? And what is that reward based upon? What is it judged upon? It is judged upon a person's intention. So therefore, it helps you to understand the objectives of Sharia. What are the goals of the Sharia, for example, one of the Maxim's, that we will study and speak about in some detail, is that the Sharia facilitates ease. hardship brings ease. So therefore, you know that our objective of Islam and of the Sharia is to make our lives easy for us to make Islam

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and the Sharia and the rulings of Islam, easy for the people to follow and to apply.

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So therefore, it is something shallow. And this is something which we'll come into in slightly more detail as we progress throughout these few hours.

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What is the difference between a solar panel kovarian for clear, and as well, we have these three sciences and all of them are very closely related, they are closely interlinked, and they have a close relationship with one another. But what is the difference between the two or three? The first difference is how you use each one will super fit is the science that you use. First, it is the science that tells you how to use it, use the sources of the shediac. So as we discussed last month, it tells you how to what are the sources of the [???]tier first and foremost, and then secondly, how to use them. And thirdly, who is able to use the who's qualified enough to use them? So for example,

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we know that from the sources of the Sharia in Islam

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now when you go to the Quran, and you pick up the phone and you open the Quran, what does that mean? How do you use the command as a source of legislation? How do you find what is halal and haram? How do you understand the commands and prohibitions of the Quran? That is what was pseudo does and even though we don't use you know, we don't like study it in this way that you only study also worship first, then you only study for then you only study afterwards. It is a linear kind of relationship in that sense that will silver fit is the first of the sciences tells you how to use the Quran and the Sunnah. Then you have the science of fit, which then tells you now derive the ruling. You know

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how to use the Quran and the Sunnah. You know what these means these terms, oblique obligation, prohibitionist recommendation dislike all of these terminologies you're familiar with. Now deduce the rulings. So you see Salah is an obligation, or that type of prayer is a recommendation or that particular action is haraam. So you have a suitable fit that taught you how to use the sources, then fit is the practical application is now deriving those rulings. And then

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here is the third in that line. And that is that it is summarizing all of those rulings of fit into simple rules that you can memorize, retain, recall, remember. So that is the first difference, right? Each one is used in a slightly different way. Obviously, they're all linked closely together. Because you're you know, you're speaking about the rulings of Allah subhana wa Tada. But that is the first difference. The second difference is that a solo doesn't give you rulings hasura teaches you how to use the Quran and the Sunnah. So when we say for example, that a commandment in a sort of that or Command means obligation. When a lot command something, what does it mean? It means

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obligatory, but that's not a ruling, that's a principle. You can't use that in and of itself, because it doesn't tell you what alarm it obligatory. It just tells you that's how you treat the Koran. That's how you interact with the Quran. Whereas here, you can use in terms of ruling as well, because it will tell you that your actions are judged by intention, that something practical that you can use, tells you for example, that if there is hardship beyond your scope to bear, then the Sharia will bring ease for you. That tells you that something easy that you can use, for example, or that fear will tell you that harm is removed, there is no harm in Islam. So harm being removed is a

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practical thing that you can use. For example, for other towns, you that certainty isn't removed by doubt, that's something practical that you can use. So that is also a difference between the two assault and between alcohol.

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The other difference between the two is your soul speaks about principles and those principles or principles that you apply and they are very, very rigid and set in the way that they are. Whereas alcohol.

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There are different levels of different types of juristic Maxim's some of them are very wide and universal and they apply to many, many chapters. Others of them are very narrow and only applied to one or two issues.

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Both of them are Maxim's meaning inquire the fifth to the one that applies to lots of issues only applies to a couple. Both are considered to be a carry that they are juristic. Maxim's, but they differ in terms of how comprehensive they are, whereas those oral will always have the same rigid principles that you will apply and that you will use.

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Okay, the history of the science. So as we've said before, in every single science in the time of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam we know that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam didn't teach people in the way that we now teach didn't study with his companion subjects they didn't come on uncertain given day and they studied zero they studied clerical for clear they studied for a

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while the profits on a lower and he was selling would just teach the people and the companions would understand what if they had issues that they wanted to raise and require knowledge about the profits on a large volume, sell them, we'll teach them the systemization of sciences and formulating them and codifying them. This came later on in the subsequent generations of Muslims and scholars. However, the essence of each one of these sciences be Tafseer Be it be it provided for Kyocera Dell found in the time of the profits on a low while he was selling them, they just weren't called and studied in the way that we would study them today. So for example, the profits on the lower end he

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was selling would say, in Nam, alamelu, beanie yet famous Hadith, every action is judged by its intention, that is a Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, but it is also the basis of a juristic Maxim aloo mocassin, when we say that our actions are judged by the retention merger taken from is taken from that statement of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. So it is based upon the Hadith. So the companions then will take that knowledge and they would understand the role of our actions are based also upon intention, not just upon the physical action. And so they would take these and there are other sciences other other words as well, other Maxim's that we will

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mention, some of them are taken literally from the statements and the words of the prophets on illawarra to send them directly. So the point being, therefore the prophets on a lower it was seldom used to teach people these codes and the companions took them, and they understood them. And at the time of the qualifier, they will do the same. They wouldn't study it as a science. But they would lay down these principles and these Maxim's that people would then be able to go and use, for example, Mr. rhodiola, one in Sri Lanka, which was one of the longest levers out of the four, the second longest key lever, or more of the long run will take rulings and He will give decisions and

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make decrees. And then, months later, or a few years later, he would sometimes change his opinion on certain issues. And he would give a different federal or different decree or different ruling. So people would say, Oh, you gave a ruling a few months ago, a few years ago on the same issue, and you ruled in this way. And now on the same issue, you've taken a different position and a different opinion. On our model, the law what I'm used to see how the alhama Naqvi or Harvey Irma nakivo tilaka alhama. Paulina, this is our ruling now. And that was our ruling, then what does that mean? It means obviously, as a scholar, when you're studying, and you're learning, and you're trying to

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reach the rulings of Allah subhanaw taala. As you increase in knowledge, as new evidence comes to light, as you learn more, you will change your opinion from time to time. And there is nothing wrong with it. And that is, and that statement is a juristic Maxim, that there's nothing wrong with the speller, changing their opinion over time. And all of the scholars of Islam, change their opinions over time, they began on certain positions, and then they change them later on. And that is why sometimes even in a single method, you will find that the Imam of the month have a difference. There's different narrations that have been reported from your different opinions that have been

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mentioned from him. And that's because the scholars used to change their opinions. Are they him Rahmatullah? So the companions also then establish these types of Maxim's that the scholars took and they continued to use. And then the subsequent generations, the scholars of Islam, and those early generations of Islam they used to give in their books and in the teachings they would give these Maxim's and these Maxim's were based upon the overarching an extensive study the comprehensive study of Islam. So you can imagine people like Amanda hanifa Imam, Malik Imam, Shafi Muhammad, Rahim, Allah and other great scholars of Islam, because of how much time and effort they put into studying

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the Sharia, they were able to understand from the idea that this is something a pattern that recurs so much, that is principle is something that can be applied. So for example, an Imam Shafi Rahim Allah used to see now Yun Sabu Eliza

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In

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the one who remain silent, you can't ascribe to the misstatement. So if you're silent, and you don't see anything, generally speaking right outside, um, there are exceptions to this rule. But generally speaking, I'm speaking now and talking and everyone else is silent. I can't say that this brother said such and such, that brother made that statement, you were saying that you didn't see anything. And it's not from our religion, that we ascribe things to people that they didn't say, openly, I can't just make things up and say, you know, everyone agrees with me, everyone said the same thing. So that is a principle that we find within our Sharia.

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And there are many others as well, that the scholars mentioned. It is later on after the passing of those early generations of Muslims that scholars began to codify and write books about the science of alpha, alpha. And one of the first people or one of the first group of scholars to do this with the Hanafi scholars Rahim Allah, the Hanafi madhhab. And we touched upon this very briefly last month, when we speaking about Muslim phip. But there were two different types of studying or soul and studying the sources of the Sharia that developed in the early, early parts of Islam.

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They had you had the mother of some of the people of Medina and the hijas, which is Mecca and Medina and those areas, and then you had the mothers of the people of Iraq, the people of Medina, their way of studying was that they would go to the sources, the Quran, and the Sunnah and so on, so forth, and they will introduce the rulings, they will go to the Quran and the Sunnah, the sources, they would study them and deduce the rulings, the way of the people of Iraq of studying was that they will do the opposite. They will look at the issues that affect people, and then they would return to the Quran and the sooner to find the ruling that fits that situation. So you have two different ways

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of studying. The first is you go to the Quran and Sunnah. You find what they say, and you deduce the ruling. The second way, is that no, you look at the issues, what's the issue, this person has an issue in their prayer in the Salah. And we'll do these are the questions that people are asking. So now let's find the answer from the Quran and the Sunnah. And from the sources of legislation. There is nothing wrong with either way, both of them are correct. And both of them have their place. And we still use, you know, we probably use the second one more, because there is more practical in its nature than the first people come with the issues, especially in new issues that the scholars didn't

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have before. It's an issue, then you go back to the Quran and the Sunnah, and you look for its ruling, and you look for its evidence. So because the people of Iraq, and the people of Iraq would then later on become the Hanafi scholars, the madrasa valorizes, known the people of Iraq and so on the Hanafi scholars in Abu hanifa mahoma and his students and their students and so on, because of their way of studying film, they were more able or it was better suited for them to develop the science of survival for Korea, because they weren't going through the Quran and soon introducing rulings, they had lots of rulings, they already have lots of issues. Now that they wanted to go and

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To summarize, so they started developing these provide into a, some sort of a codified way into a science. So they said, for example, that one of the earliest scholars to write in this field was a spanner by the name of apple pie had the best. And then also an amendment Berkeley Rahim Allah tala and his famous scholar of

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the Hanafi madhhab. And they had 17 1820 principles that they found in the shediac 17 1820 Maxim's that they had seen the role of these rulings come under the comprehensive Maxim's, and they put them into a book. And from that time, it then developed on and obviously at the mothership of Islam, continued to develop this as well. There are many, many books when it comes to alcohol. There are many, many, many books, right, like every other signs of Islam, FCU, or sort of many books that have been written.

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I will mention some of the more important ones

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for most the most important ones, or the ones that are called a spa, one Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada. And every single method of the form of hubs, there is a book called Alicia Juana via the same title. And that title in each of those formats hubs, deals with a word for clear it deals with the Maxim's that those scholars of that method have put together. So for example, even Oliver Keeler share three, he has that book, Tasha Dina Suki, a suti, shaman Hanafi. They are all scholars of these methods that came together. And they had the same title for that book, each one covering alcohol for clear. You had other books that took on the name of a Goliath and provide for Korea, like Korea by

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Lima Blue Origin and covered by the

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law. And then you have other books that were quote unquote worried

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Will soon for example,

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and alpha rock there are books that are called alpha rock. And then there are books in our even in our time contemporary books, for example shuksan in Suitland. haffi. The home loan is one of the scholars who has come to our winter conference a number of times. He has a book on the subject and provided for Korea.

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Lima Saudi Rahim Allah Shanthi means teacher, he had a poem that he developed just on the science of inquiry that there is even an encyclopedia, which is like some 20 odd volumes written by a scholar called Borno, who comprise and he explained all of the different covariance that our religion has. So whether the very large comprehensive universal Maxim's or the very small maximums only apply to a couple of issues gathered all of them into this encyclopedia which he called Masato

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the scholars when it comes to writing their books in a way that they ordered them in a different way, some of them order them in level of importance, because you can imagine the reader many, right there are many. So you know, several years he speaks about principles of faith, but we spoke about the four main categories or four main areas that will sort of fit looks at so therefore it's nicely divided, it's nicely categorized, because of those four different areas. In October I disappear however, it is more about many many Maxim's It is about a number of Maxim's many in number, depending on the level and the depth of that book. And those Maxim's then have to be categorized. So

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some of the scholars they categorize them in levels of importance meaning those that will most comprehensive they began with first and then they continued going down and down until you get the ones that are less comprehensive they only deal their minor Maxim's they only deal with a couple of issues. So for example, economic Jamiel Hanafi animus UTI mama in their books, this is how they categorize them and we'll speak about those levels of coverage shortly inshallah Tada, others from amongst them, they categorize them alphabetically. So, this is the way that they thought was most easiest to categorize them alphabetically, so only members yakushi for example, in his book, he

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categorize them alphabetically, others from amongst the scholars, they categorize them according to the chapters.

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So on the chapters of fifth the same order of the chapters are filled. In each chapter they bought the relevant covered and others from amongst them like Raja Rahim, Allah didn't have any categorization or any set order, he just mentioned the Quran as and how he pleased. So, this is a brief background into the science and development of ultra wide alpha clear.

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Alpha

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has a number of ways that we can categorize it the science of a polarity and for clear the most

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perhaps the easiest way of categorizing those

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are those who are worried that the spell is agreed upon, and those that the scholars differ over is that apparent or not occur either.

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There are five Maxim's five Maxim's and these are the ones that we will speak about in detail because the Maxim's include a mini number. In actuality there are many, many in number, but there are five that are considered to be universal. In Arabic, they're called Al kawari, al Kalia and Cobra the universal Maxim's right that's how they're generally translated into English, universal because they apply to many, many issues of faith.

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And these five are the ones that the vast majority if not most of the scholars have agreed upon, that these five Maxim's are overarching, Maxim's principles of our religion, that many of the issues of faith come under. There is some difference of opinion even in this so some scholars say the most not five there's six other signals not five this for the signal, there's three others from amongst them said there's only one, only one that is truly overarching. But the point is that the vast majority of scholars now and especially in our times agree that there are five, write those five the scholars don't differ over. So these are five that you will find scholars saying no, no. Is there a

00:34:19--> 00:35:00

Maxim noreau Maxim maybe not maybe the agree that they are Maxim's the other ones are Maxim's, in which you will find differences of opinion. Some scholars said, No, it doesn't apply, or we don't agree with it, or it doesn't start a maxim doesn't apply and so on and so forth. So because of the difference of opinion, the scholars didn't call them universal Maxim's. So that's one way of categorizing them. What the scholars agreed upon what they didn't agree upon. Another way of categorizing the juristic maximuscle kawari done for Korea is in terms of how comprehensive they are. So you have the universal Maxim's which are the five. They are the most comprehensive and

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Universal doesn't mean that they they don't have any exceptions maybe on the odd occasion there is an exception, but universal generally speaking, they apply more or less to everything. Those are the five. then below that you have a second category and there are called ultra wide Cobra, the major maximums while the major not universal, because they apply to less chapters of film, they cover less issues and then you have a lower below another category below and these are called alcoholic Asakura minor Maxim's so the overarching Maxim's the universal Maxim's will have many minor Maxim's within them so for example Alomar obioma Casa de her affairs are judged by their intention has many many

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minor Maxim's that fall under it. Why are the minor? Why don't the major well the universal because they only apply to certain issues here and there. And we'll give some examples of this later on inshallah when we discuss them in more detail. So there are minor Maxim's the major Maxim's are standalone Maxim's they don't fall under the universal ones. They are standalone, but they're not universal because they apply to less. And there's some difference of opinion that the spellers default over them do they read or they agree and so on and so forth. But the universal ones are five and they are the ones that the scholars agree upon. Another way of categorizing the query that

00:36:27--> 00:36:29

appear that some scholars do

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is by way of the evidence, the coordinator for Korea, some of them are taken literally from the text and the wording of the Quran and the Sunnah. They are taken from the Quran and the Sunnah. So for example, on Omar Bhima Casa de Mello vignette, actions are judged by their intention, there is a hadith as we know the famous hadith of Mr.

00:36:53--> 00:37:35

Bahari, that Hadith is the basis of this, it's based on the principle of the maxim is based on what it is based upon. And thus it is based upon a textual evidence. The second type of query that will Maxim is one that the spelers deduced and divine. So it's not taken from the wording of ahaadeeth or the wording of a statement of the profits on a lower limb. It is something that the scholars through this study, they deduced it, and they said that this is a maximum. So that is in terms of its evidence, that is in terms of its evidence, and there are other ways of categorizing and sub categorizing these, these qualities as well. What we're going to do though is we're going to

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concentrate on the five universal ones right we don't have the time and this is in the sitting to start going into detail concerning the major ones and the minor ones and so on. That's for something childlife are interested in to go and do by yourself to go and and study inshallah in a different setting. But what we will do is we will speak about the five universal Maxim's and these are the most important, Maxim's the scholars mentioned and those are fine The first one is an immoral democracy. I will list them for you for you first before we go into each one in detail. The first one is that our moral democracy the actions are judged by their intention by or affairs or just by

00:38:13--> 00:38:15

their intention. Number two,

00:38:16--> 00:38:36

Alma Shaka touched the booty See, difficulties difficulty gives rise to ease difficulty gives rise to ease. Number three, a Latino Leia Zulu be shocked certainty is not removed by doubt. certainty is not removed by that. Number four.

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Oh user, oh La da da da da da da both of the mean the same thing more or less and that is the term is removed in Islam, harm is removed there is no harm in Islam. And number five, Allah Allah Maha karma, the customs of the people are applied customs of people are applied. These five these five are considered the covered Kalia Cobra, the universal Maxim's of Islam, meaning that many, many, if not more, or less, all of the chapters are felt they will fall into one of these five or more than one of these five, they apply everywhere. Right? Those are the universal Maxim's of Islam.

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Before we go into each one in detail, that it's only one final issue that remains in terms of the introduction to the science, and that is that are these Maxim's of fifth? Are they in and of themselves evidence? Meaning that if someone comes to you and they want to know an issue, can you say to them that yes or no based upon this Maxim? Can you use it as a deal as an evidence in and of itself? Or must you use it and then refer back to the Quran and the Sunnah and say, Yes, because of this Maxim, but also then because it is based upon this Hadith, and this verse of the Quran. This is an issue of difference of opinion and some of the scholars said, yes, you

00:40:00--> 00:40:36

Go ahead in and of themselves these Maxim's the evidences within our religion, because as follows went through the whole of the Sharia and they found that they applied to many issues. So therefore they must be evidences. And others said no. And the stronger opinion on large soldier knows best is that you have to look at the type of Maxim if the maximum is based upon the wording of the Quran and the Sunnah, then you don't need to go and give a hadith or song because it's based on the Quran and Sunnah anyway, and if it's not based on the continent, Sunnah, then it is not an evidence in and of itself, but it requires additional evidence in the Quran and the Sunnah. And by the way, when the

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scholars discuss each and every single Maxim be the universal maximum, a major maximum, a minor Maxim, they always mentioned it's evidence from the Quran and the Sunnah. It is a maxim, based upon this verse of the Quran or this Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam well this issue and that issue, they always mentioned, how it is connected and how it has been established in terms of its evidence.

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So let us go on to these five universal Maxim's The first of those universal Maxim's is an muro, Bhima Casa de Muro Mima qasida affairs are judged by their intention. And this is perhaps, you know, like one of the most famous most well known most widely used juristic Maxim that we have out there. And omorovicza mikaze, the

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Alamo is the plural of the word Mr.

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And Mrs means an affair or an issue something right, an affair issue and so on. So for example, Ronnie says, Allah, Allah He to zero more, indeed to Allah, all affairs will return on issues will return. So it includes both actions and statements, words and actions fall under this,

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this wording of more widely use the Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu erroneously because we'll go on and we'll see that one of the evidences and evidence the primary evidence that this whole Maxim is based upon is the hadith of Omar de la one in the Mullah Omar Lubin, yet indeed your actions are just by intention. So some of the scholars said that they didn't use the wording or mal Roubini at all, Mr. looby metacity her because Amma refers to your actions your physical actions refers to your limbs and what you do, whereas more is more general. refers to your statements refers to your physical actions refers to the state of your heart refers to everything, everything is judged by

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your intention. So because it is a more generic, more comprehensive, inclusive word, they use that wording instead allows the origin for example it says when you label some work, you will have what you need your general number kulu to Allah belongs the unseen of the heavens and the earth, and all of your issues and affairs will return to Him and allows the original says about feral woman, Mo Farah wannabe Rashid and the affairs of Pharaoh were not one of wisdom. So the word Emirate means an affair and issue and so on and so forth. And more Mima parses the word maksud, Omakase. It is again a plural and it is the plural of the word mcsa. And mcse. That means an intention, what you have

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conviction in. Now an intention is something which you don't just think it's not just a thought that comes upon you. It's not just a fleeting whisper, or a thought or a desire, and intention or a conviction is something that your heart is firm and set upon doing. So we have that famous Heidi, for example of the profits on a low hourly or sillim. And it's mentioned in the collection of the fortune of Unknowing, where the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, that if a person has to be emilien, if a person has a firm conviction to do a good deed, and then they don't do it, how much reward did they get, they get one reward. And if they do it, then they get 10, to 700, to many more

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than that. And if a person has a firm conviction, to do an evil deed, and they don't do it, meaning they leave it for the sake of Allah, then Allah writes it as a good deed. And if they do it, then it is written as how many evil deeds as a single evil deed, right? This wording of the Hadith of the prophets on the Lower East and what is it referring to referring to a firm conviction and intention, such a thought right, because a large social as the professor himself or alarm surgeon has forgiven for this oma mahad does that be enough sir, that which the metal that rich people think to themselves your thoughts when you think you know, you come and you think of doing something,

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sometimes it may be haraam may be something which pleases a lot something which may be you see, and you're like, ah, if only I could do that press on something

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You actually want to do just a photo shoot on brings into your head. That's not something which is accountable in Islam. Allah has forgiven that from his mercy. What is accountable is an intention, what is an intention? It is a conviction, something your heart is set upon doing. So when you're set upon doing something, that is what we are referring to, as in a maksud, right. And it is when you want to do something, you want to bring something into being you wanted to actually change, not just something within your heart, but something that you want to translate into reality, as well.

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So the word omo

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is a comprehensive, inclusive term. It includes your actions, includes your statements, and includes why inside your heart what you actually wanted to do, for example, a person, you know, we'll have the Adobe live within their heart, they have the firm conviction and the firm intention that they want to go and drink wine. They've made that intent, this is something that they going to do. So they sit out from their house to go to the local supermarket to buy some wine to drink. But then on the way, they see a friend, and the friend comes and he's like, Where are you going? And you know, they don't say they're going to buy wine so that I go, we're going to the Mr. Right, went to the

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masjid says okay, I'm going to the mission as well, let's go together. So this person stuck right within their heart, they made the firm conviction that they were going to do harm. What stopped them was that they fear Allah. Was it that they thought no, Tom, what stopped them? What struck them was something else that just happened to come in the way that is a firm conviction that allow will hold someone to account for if that person had set out and then on the way for the Sofitel la haraam? How can I do such a thing is displeasing to Allah, and the change that intention? Now that's where that intention is rewarded. But when a person has a firm conviction, and they set out to do it, and then

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they stop by the dunya, just life, something happens, and they stopped, that intention is still out to account. Right. And that's why some of the scholars you know, they see often in their books, for example, if you're praying in your Salah, and you have the firm conviction in the salon, you pray in Gemma's congregation, you have the firm conviction in your heart that you've broken the prayer. So often, you're like, that's not to pray the prayers. nullified, are not praying anymore, your prayer doesn't count nearly fine. Because it wasn't just a thought. It's not just something shavon bought as much as the whispering is something your heart had conviction upon. And you thought that even in

00:47:35--> 00:47:36

fasting,

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you're fasting is Ramadan, and in your heart, you say to yourself with firm conviction, I've broken my fast, you fast is broken. Even if you don't eat you don't bring you don't you wait all the way to the far to eat and drink doesn't count because you made that firm conviction. So the intention is one of those things that works both ways. And that is why it is so important and it has such a place within our religion and obviously, it is also the part that determines your sincerity to Allah subhanho wa Taala and that sincerity then obviously determines the amount of reward that you receive as well.

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So some of the scholars of Islam, they said therefore, that the wording that should have been used as the wedding of the Hadeeth more than a single movie mikaze have we should have used the wedding the Hadith Allah man who vignette and others from amongst the scholars said no, because the issue of intention refers to something which is in the heart, we should have said last hour, but

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there is no reward except based upon your intention. Because a person can perform a deed they can play physically, they can fast physically, they can use a car physically, they can go and perform Hajj physically and so on and so forth. But it doesn't mean that they will be rewarded. Right, it doesn't mean that they will be rewarded. However, many of the scholars are of the opinion that it should be this wording because it is inclusive, and it deals with not only the intention, the sincerity aspect, but it also deals with the physical aspect and the practical aspect as well. And so, therefore, it is something which the scholars said that they will or many of the scholars kept

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to this wedding. And that is that the wedding is more Ruby metacity ha, that our affairs are judged by their intention.

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So Finns are judged by their intention. So for an example, and some of these examples I mentioned within the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam

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mentioned the person who for example, seeks knowledge, right one of the first people that aligns the agenda, but hold to account on human tiama and throw them into the fight Maillard so you'll see was from that is a person from amongst him as a person who sought knowledge and reciting the Quran. And likewise the person who gave charity and likewise the person who fought for the sake of Allah subhana wa Tada. Each one of them apparently did an action which is good which

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brings them close to Allah, which is a righteous team. But when a large religion holds them to account, he will hold them to account not only for the physical deed, but he will also look at their intention. So it will be said for the party for the one who recited the Quran and so knowledge Why did you do so? And he will say, I would love to please you. And allow will say to him contempt, you lied. Or rather, you did so so that the people will say you will learn in your knowledge about your reciter and then allow in order he will be thrown into the fire. And the one who gave charity, why did he give charity I would love to please you allow will seek them to line but you did so so that

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the people will see you're generous, you're kind you're giving. And that's what he said, and then he will be thrown in the fire. And the one who died in the path of Allah, why'd you do it to please your mama, you lied? You did so to the people, so you're brave, and you're courageous, you're a hero, and so on and so forth. And that's what they said and you will be thrown into the fire. So therefore, sometimes the person is performing an action. The apparent action is for us to judge upon. Someone comes in they pray for a cause a lot of time in geometric did they pay for this? They thought that's what we do. We judge upon people's apparent actions. The first of the month of

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Ramadan, they fulfill the obligation of Hajj and Umrah they gave this a courtesy and so on and so forth. But in terms of its acceptance in front of Allah, there is between them and a large religion. And that's why the scholars say the actions are divided into those two elements. One is the element that we judge to each other, has your obligation been lifted, have you filled your duty as a Muslim, no responsibility that Allah placed upon your shoulder, that's what we judge upon. Right? That's what effect does fit looks at it's Haram. It's halal, it's worship, it's is not allowed, and so on and so forth. And then the other element is whether it's actually accepted by Allah. And that is

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where the companions of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, what are your love language, Marian, they would often speak about how their actions may not be accepted by Allah. And if they knew that only a single action was to have been accepted by Allah, they would place they would have placed all of their crust upon the deed, that action Why? Because no one knows whether the loan will accept the deeds or not. And the law says in the Quran, in Nehemiah Taco Bell, Allahu

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Allah only accepts the deeds of the righteous and the pious. So therefore, that is something which, you know, that's an example, person seeking knowledge or doing some type of good and you don't know what it is that they're doing.

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Or maybe not something as sinister. But sometimes what we have is people that are doing the same action, but they're doing it for different reasons. For example, someone's fasting, one person has fasting, or they haven't eaten since the morning, because they're just not hungry, hungry, didn't make the intention to fast. They're not fasting to please Allah, they just didn't, they just hungry. Or maybe they're poor, they don't, they can't find any food. So they're fasting because of the situation. Another person is fasting, they haven't eaten or drank all day, on medical advice. They have some kind of procedures, some kind of operation, some kind of thing that they need to undergo.

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And part of the guidelines that they were given is don't eat, don't drink. So they're fasting. But it's not an act of worship. And the third person is fasting also, but they're doing it to please Allah, they're performing infinitely better, they're performing an optional optional deed of fasting to please Allah subhana wa, Tada. For example, a person gives money, you see someone giving money to another person? Is that action? sadaqa? Is he giving him charity? Or his direction? A gift is a hadiya is giving him you know, like, a gift from one person to another? Or is it something more sinister? Is it a bribe? This person giving him money to bribe him because he wants something from

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him? What is the thing that determines what that action is? It is based upon your intention. It is based upon a person's intention. And likewise, prayer person comes in play, are they praying a prayer, or they're praying an optional prayer, you know, and so on and so forth. All of this is determined by what is determined by a person's intention. So therefore, you see the many, many of the chapters are on many, many spheres of life. This is something which has a practical application, for example, in the way that we deal with our spouses, with our children, with the people that are around us. You see something and a person gets offended. you apologize. And they're like, no, but

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you meant to hurt me. And you say, No, I didn't mean to offend you. I just happened to offend you, but it wasn't my intention to do so. That intention plays a role. Alarm soldier knows best whether you were truthful in that intention or not. And that is well learned. So we just says in the Quran, Berlin in San Juan Island FC basura 100. Every person knows the true state of their own self, even if they make excuses apparently. So you know, deep down whether you intended to offend

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Not often, you know, deep down, whether the action is to please a lot or to please someone else, you can see what you wish and you can make every excuse but you know, on the last panel what Allah knows. So this is the first universal Maxim, moral democracy the affairs are judged by their intention. There are many, many, many, many proofs from the Quran and the Sunnah. And because it is mentioned so many times and because so many times that is the reason why the scholars call it a universal Maxim, from the Quran, just by way of example, from the Quran. We have the statement of Allah Subhana darlin Sorokin, Nisa,

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fujimi Beatty Mahajan on Illa he was solely from Madrid cool Mount faqad, waka Raja who Allah, Whosoever leaves from the house, migrating for the sake of Allah Subhana Allah to Allah and then death comes upon them, the reward is with Allah, the reward is will do with the loss of panatela that personnel who migrates and obviously in the time of the Prophet seven people will making that act of migration from Mecca to Medina and so on that act of migration of leaving your family, your land, your home and so on. And migrating was to please Allah, or was it to please someone else? Right? Was it to please Allah? Or was it to please someone else? So this is something that a large

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soldier is referring to in the Quran, saying that the one who does so sincerely with the intention of pleasing Allah, they will have their reward in the sight of Allah Subhana Allah. Allah azza wa jal says, For example, also in silico, Nisa, Montana, you read a thorough but dunya Frank the life of dunya, Allah, Whosoever wants to reward a reward of this life, Allah has the reward of this life and the next one. So when you perform an action is to gain some worldly good, or is it to gain some reward of the hereafter. And that's why when a person has an intention, and they make all of their affairs, pleasing to Allah, subhanaw taala, Allah will reward them for everything. And there are

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many hobbies in this regard. So for example, the Prophet sallallaahu, Selim told us, for example, that even feeding your family is an act of good, it's an act of sadaqa. But only when you have an intention, if you're just feeding them, because you know, you're the man of the house and you whatever the mother is cooking, which is just feeding a family, it's okay. There's nothing wrong with that. It's not Haram. It's just something which you do, as a mother and a father and so on and so forth. But if as well as doing that action, you had the intention, that no, this is something that I will do to please Allah, that everyday normal action is now transferred, or changed,

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transformed into an rabada. An act of worship, right? And that's why we often have within the sooner the prophets on a log where it will send them, sometimes the companions, they would praise someone, maybe he was martyred in the battle or something like that. And the prophets of Salaam would say, no, this person is in the fire. The Companions only know what's parent, they only see what's going on. But a large surgeon told the professor Solomon gave him that revelation that all this person's intention was impure, whereas another person would sin, and they would be punished. And because of their toberman, one of the companions would make, you know, a belittling statement, or they would

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say something about that companion, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam would rush and defend that person, even though they performed a sin and they've been punished for it. They performed a crime in the STEM, and they've been punished. The processor would say, concerning their Toba, that it was sincere, or sometimes he would say that if the Toba the repentance was to cover all of Medina, he would cover all of it right? He would cover all of the people of Medina because of its sincerity. So all of this, where does it come back to it comes back to the issue of the heart and alarms the origin mentions this in the Quran, in a number of places, in the Sunnah of the Prophet

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sallallahu alayhi wasallam. We also have a number of examples, where the professor seldom speaks about intention from them as Heidi the very shadow the loved one which is mentioned in our Bukhari and Muslim that from the signs of human piano is that there will be an army that will come to attack the Kaaba, there will be an army that will come to attack the Kaaba, and Allah will open up the earth and he will swallow them into it. And amongst those people will be people who just happened to be in that area. They weren't part of the army. They weren't, you know, because when the earth swallows people up, it doesn't differentiate between this and that person. Everyone gets swallowed.

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So the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, then the people will be resurrected according to their intention. Those people that were forced, and they were dragged into the army, those people who actually willingly went into the army, those people just happened to be in the area. They were innocent bystanders, allowable heroes wrecked how each one how, according to their intention, and they will be judged according to them. So the profits on the lower end sooner speaks about this issue of intention. The hadith of Saudi Arabia will pass for the lover and also Nepali and Muslim

01:00:00--> 01:00:39

On, we have the statement of the profits on a low earning sillim. You will never spend anything for the sake of Allah except an allowable reward you for it, even the food that you put into the mouth of your wife. Right? So what is the operative statement here, that you seek the pleasure of Allah meaning you have the intention, that it bother you pleasing Allah subhanho wa Taala and raise that issue, or that intention, that sincerity in the heart that makes everything into an act of worship, it makes it into an Riba. And then we have obviously the most famous of those a Hadith, which is the hadith of Rama rhodiola one that we've referred to already a number of times, in Nam alamelu,

01:00:39--> 01:00:48

miniato enamal equilibrium and our every action is just by its intention, and every person shall have that which they intended. And the Hadith goes on.

01:00:49--> 01:01:25

The truce over Migrator for the sake of Allah and His Messenger than their migration is for the lion, His Messenger, and whoever may have waited for some worldly purpose or to seek a woman's hand in marriage than their migration is for what that which they might waited for. Some of the scholars said that this hadith is because there were some people who migrated or a certain individual migrated from Mecca to Medina, for marriage. It was almost a mini migration, but it was because he wanted to marry someone in Medina. So when this was mentioned to the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, he mentioned this hadith. It is upon your intention, Allah will judge you based upon your

01:01:25--> 01:02:04

intention. And because of the importance of this Hadith, Allah Muhammad Buhari Rahim Allah He mentioned it as the introduction to soy. There's the first Hadith in Bukhari scholars record emammal shafia. The Moroccan man used to say that it is a third of knowledge that all of Islam goes around three Hadith This is one of those three, and the memorable Hydra mama used to say that this hadith is one of the greatest, most comprehensive, most beneficial Hadith of the Prophet salallahu alayhi wa sallam, and other scholars like Abdul Rahman Rahim Allah is to say that this is a hadith that every book should begin with, and every chapter should begin with. So the scholars praises Hadith

01:02:04--> 01:02:13

and they spoke about it in a great amount of detail. What does this show this How does this general principle shows therefore, that we

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have to purify our intention, that the intention has a general purpose? Number one, it is part of sincerity. The intention determines your sincerity. So a person who sincerely worships Allah Subhana Allah comes to please Allah azza wa jal, Allah subhanaw taala will look at what he will look at their heart and their sincerity and the level of their intention. So that's the first purpose of this principle. But the more practical application, and the one that we use, in fact, is the second one. And that is the intention will determine what it is that your action actually comes from. So for example,

01:02:56--> 01:03:34

differentiating between Laura and Asa. Both of them are for both of them are preaching the daytime. Yes, they have different times. But if a person was to miss one time, and come and pray later on, how would they differentiate between Laura NASA, they will differentiate based upon their intention. For example, they will differentiate between the different types of sadhana prayers based upon their intention for person comes into the mission force a lot to learn and the pre two records. Are those two records from the two records are here to misschien. Are they two records? You know, because the missed federal in the federal now are the two records which are part of the sunon robotic of the

01:03:34--> 01:04:12

Salah or Serato, or one of those two, Sooners are those two hours of solid form. And it also helps you to differentiate between what is an either a general habit and between what is an act of worship. So, for example, taking a shower of awesome bathing. Sometimes people bathe because it's hot. Sometimes people bathe because that's they normally do it every day. And sometimes you be because there is a religious obligation to worship Allah azza wa jal like on a Friday or after marital relations and so on and so forth. What is it that differentiates all of this? It is a person's intention, and that is why the scholars have spoken about it in so much detail. There are a

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few issues definition and then we'll stop for for a break and facilitate. What is the intention? What is the piece of the intention, the place of the intention is the heart

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and that is where the intention is mentioned. And it is not mentioned that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam ever spoken intention out loud except on a couple of occasions. The first isn't Hajin Amara, but he would openly say the intention. He would seem to be called La homearama. The big alarm hejin when he would go to the Meerkat and the second is on sacrifice. When he would sacrifice his animals for his animal. He would mention his intention out loud you would say Oh Allah, this is for Mohammed and for the family of Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam see what see how long and some of the scholars even said that that action or that statement out loud

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Isn't him sing the intention out loud? It is actually a part one of the recommended aspects of that question, meaning it's part and parcel of that worship. It's not him saying it out loud in terms of seeing the intention, it is actually something which is legislated in and of itself as part of that worship. But even so, the point being that the vast majority of deeds, their place, and the intention is always in the heart. So if a person was to say something, but their heart has something else within it, which one are we going to take, we're going to take their heart right. So, therefore, the place of the intention is within the heart and that is where the intention is made.

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And the intention

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or the intention that is that is made within the heart, sometimes it is, it is worship, and sometimes it is recommended. So it is worship. For example, in that which Allah azza wa jal has made obligatory, whenever you perform an act of worship, you must have an intention that you're worshiping Allah sincerely and purely. And if it's, for example, an obligatory act of worship, you must have the intention for the obligatory act of worship, that we're going to pray for automatically. We're going to pray Salatu door during fasting in the month of Ramadan, during performing hajj, and so on and so forth. And it is recommended to have an intention to worship Allah

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subhanaw taala in all of our affairs in which we can seek closeness to Allah. So whether it's feeding our family, whether it's working for a halal risk, all of those things that can become very bad data and acts of worship is recommended that we train ourselves to do so.

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The final thing that I want to mention is some of the minor Maxim's some of the minor Maxim's that come under this universal Maxim. So this is the universal maximum capacity effect first, just by the intention. However, there are many minor Maxim's of fall underneath it. So I'll mention just a couple of them, by way of example, and I'm not going to go through many, because there are many that we can mention, but just so that you will know that you will know some of them. The first one or the first example is

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when it comes to contracts, contracts. Is it to do with the wording of the contract, or the intention of the person making the contract? This is a party that might apply either. So this party the some of the scholars, why is minor Maxim because this follows different overage? Is it the wording? Or is it the intention? So some of the scholars said it is by the wording, or the set it is by the intention, those of the scholars that said that it is by intention, they said that it is a minor Maxim that falls into this, why is it minor? Because it only refers to a certain issue? What is the issue? contracts? Right. So it's a minor Maxim, therefore, is taking the same principle as

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the major universal Maxim. But it's only applying it into a narrow issue, supplying onto a specific issue. So for example, this issue here is to do with contracts. So for example, me and another brother, we have a loan agreement, we have a business contract, we wrote a contract. But my intention at the time of writing was different to the wedding, I didn't really pay attention to the wedding, I meant something else. Right. And this brother meant something else. What do we refer to? Do we refer to the parent wording? Or are we going to go back to the intention, what was your intention at the time of making the contract this is what this call is different over. And because

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of the difference of opinion, that is why it is also a minor Maxim, because there was a difference of opinion. But those scholars who said for example, that it is based upon your intention, it is your intention that counts, they would say that it is a minor maximum defaults and the scope. So therefore, a person's intention is always taken into account. And that means that a person must know obviously, that a large soldier knows what their intention is, that aligns with hearing or seeing or knowing for something they can just lie about, and so on alone, will know. And if they do something by which they take other people's wealth and their rights, and just leave them alone would hold them

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to account for that in this life and the next, but the point is that because we have that trust as Muslims, we all know one another, we trust one another, the issue of brotherhood and mutual love and compassion. We asked the person what is your intention? He says my intention was A, B, C, and D. And we said, okay, we go back to your intention rather than the wedding. And others follow said, No, we stick by the wording because that's what they wrote down. And people even though we expect them to be honest, and so on, the fact is that many are dishonest. So when we allow people to just change the contracts by their intention, then it takes people's rights away and so on and so forth. The

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point is that it is an issue of difference of opinion. Another minor Maxim that would come under this some of the scholars mentioned is the maximum length of our lab, Binya reward is only based upon intention. And the reason why this color is different over this one is because they said that the issue of reward is for Allah. It's not some

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thing we can judge upon. So it doesn't have any place within the science because this science, what are we dealing with? We're dealing with practical issues, do's and don'ts, halal and haram things that we can judge upon. For a person's intention. That's not for us to judge. We don't know whether our deeds or someone's deeds are accepted or accepted, whether the reward is follow half or less or more, that is between them and the last panel. Tada. So this is another minor Maxim that we're not going to get involved in because it's fun something which which is pertinent to this discussion of the sponsor said no, it is something which has an element to play. And why is that a minor Maxim

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because it deals with only a certain issue, what is the issue, the issue of reward, right. So it's something which pertains to that slight issue some of the scholars will say it is a major Maxim because the reward is something which falls under many topics as well. But I think you get the point that you have these universal Maxim's and then these minor Maxim's which are smaller, they apply to smaller issues, but they also fall under the scope of the universal Maxim as well, and that is the first of the five inshallah Tada. I think we'll break there. And then we'll come back and we'll go over the next four after Salatin mode, but Luffy consolata. Bildungsroman early on