History of Islamic Spain
Channel: Adnan Rashid
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Bargmann zeod in 711 C in the year 92 Hijiri landed at Gibraltar, also known as jablow, javelin Parekh and then, within four years, most of the peninsula was taken by a coalition of barbers from North Africa, in particular Morocco, and Arabs 7000 barbers 5000 Arabs, led by Tarik Lindsey on the took the entire peninsula within four years, and then followed chaos for some years, leading up to the leadership of Abdur Amanda first and Nomi Prins. One of the grandsons of a shaman Abdul Malik, one of the most powerful immediate calyx ruled from 105 225 Hijiri 20 Is he ruled from Damascus, or Drumond, the first also known as Andromeda Hill, and also known as sacral Quraysh. In other words,
the hawk the Falcon of Quraysh. He escaped
Damascus because the Ambassade revolution was wiping out do you may use the OMA yields were being exterminated. Armando first, abduct Mara darken was a young man in his early 20s. Escaping from this onslaught, he made his way to Al Andalus. Long story short, and they chose him as the immune to stabilize the country because the country was going through chaos because there was chaos at the center. In Damascus and beyond. There was chaos in one of the provinces called along those of the commander first arrived in London us and he stabilizes the country and he established his own emirate and he ruled from Cordova, the city of Cordova and he establishes a masjid which stands to
this day, and now it is a cathedral.
Why? Because when the Christian Christians took it later on, they built a cathedral right in the middle of the Masjid. The Masjid pretty much stands in tact. You can go and look at the masjid. The pillars are there. The arches are there, the Mahal is there. So you can see the structure of the masjid still standing to this day built in the eighth century by a man the first and then followed a period of relative stability. Oma yet Amir's ruled Spain from Cordova for about 300 years. And in 1031 Duma, yet caliphate fell and then followed a period of Maruka survive maluca survive literally means petty kingdoms. So when the center fell, then when the institution of Halawa was abolished in
Spain, first it was an emirate or an Amara, established by the Romanians then in the 10th century, one of the descendants of Abdullah Amanda first called Abdul Rahman, the third claimed to be the Khalifa, the kala for the Muslims in a London rose. Because the caliphate in Baghdad had declined, and there was another rival caliphate in North Africa, called the Fatimid caliphate, the Shia Ismaili Fatimid caliphate which was threatening the state of London rose, so to rival to counter that claim of Caliphate, as the Abbasids had declined by this time, in the mid 10 century of the man the third, he claims to be a careless, I am the carelessness of the Muslims. And he establishes a
very powerful state, he invades North Africa to fight the Smiley's the caliphate of the Smiley's and it becomes very strong. So a lot of Muslims start to support him because of this claim.
And then this caliphate lasted for another century in 1031, it was abolished, when if no hasm a great scholar, scholar of Islam was alive, very famous scholar. So, after this Caliphate was abolished, the Muslim state of London arose, or the Muslim entity or Principality of London was split into petty kingdoms, many petty kingdoms. And this period is called Maluka, five
kings of petty kingdoms, right? Group principalities. So a small state, for example, would appoint an immediate, and that Emir would claim to be the king and the king sometimes claimed to be careless.
So this division among the Muslims political division, because all of them were fighting for the little petty states, to basically protect their petty interests they were divided, and the Christian north, the Catholic north by this time, had gained
impetus to take the land back from the Muslims. So they launched a campaign called Reconquista.
In other words the RE conquest. So they started to take land back on the Muslims. And this process started in the mid 11 century 1066 One of the major strongholds of the Muslims in the north called the bastareaud was taken and 1085 the city of Toledo, also known as fallait, Allah was taken and then for a while,
the Morabito or the Al Morabito from North Africa, they intervene and they stopped, they checked the advance of the Catholics.
Use of the Protoss Fein a famous Morabito leader, he led the armies of North African Muslims from Morocco into Spain to help the Muslims of Spain because
there was one of the rulers of the city of Seville. His name was Al Motta Ahmed, he had invited al Morabito to come and stop this Christian advance coming from the north and Morabito and came, they took the land and they were completely blown away when they saw the lifestyle of the Muslims in Spain, Muslims of Spain had reached the peak of civilization in a worldly sense in material sense. in material terms, they had reached the peak of human development, achievement, civilization, and there was nothing better than that in the world. So these desert Bedouins from North Africa when they came in to help the Muslims they saw the palaces, the fountains and all the the luxury, the
muscles and they said, No wonder you're losing land. No wonder you're losing land. Because look at you, how you live. How are you going to fight these wild people coming from the Lord, they are battle hardened, they are tougher than you are. You're all in your music and dancing and poetry and books and you know, all of that which is good. Man books, at least a good, not the rest, right? But this is why you're losing land. But what happens with these people they also become victims, two generations down the line have the same problem
or Morabito and also become, you know, customed to that culture, then come Alma hidden from North Africa, again, another dynasty. They also take land in a London loose, they remove the oil Morabito from power and they take power. Almost. It is then when the greatest disaster takes place. In 1212, the year 1212 A battle takes place between
Alba hidden and
the Spanish kingdoms are a coalition of Northern Christians Spanish kingdoms, they fight a battle called the Battle of Los nevados De Tolosa. Okay, last Navas De Tolosa 1212, this battle took place and almost lost the battle. The king of Seville, also known as Ismailia, loses the battle against a coalition of Christian kings coming from loss.
And that loss resulted in the loss of three major cities or principalities of Muslims in London, los Valencia, Seville, and Cordoba. All of these three cities fall to Christians, one after another in 1230s, between 1230 to 1215. Okay, 1230 to 1250. Within these 20 years, Christian kingdoms from the north, left, take these three major principalities almost
initially, the Muslims who came to live under Christians or under Christian kingdoms, they were called mortgagors mortgagors. And this term was taken from the Arabic word I'll muda muda basically meant people allowed to remain, the population of Muslims in Spain in the 11th century was 5 million people, 5 million people. So imagine now these Christians have come from the north, and they have taken cities after cities for the Muslims due to the weaknesses, the political divide, and petty gains and the petty, you know, concerns and ambitions. They are divided, they're broken, the Christians take advantage and they come and take all this land for us. And this is what they were
waiting for. For centuries, the Catholics from the north, the Pope's ruling from Rome, were always pushing the Christian kings from the north to take as much land as possible. Their goal was always to exterminate Islam from Spain
to destroy Islam completely, or expelled Islam or any traces of Islam from Spain. This is what the papacy had been doing. And it were the Pope's who launched the crusade as a campaign and
Any crusades took place from Northern Europe to the Middle East. And many Crusades are launched against the Muslims of Spain as well.
So, I'll Modar Jeff or mood Manager, which was the term used for Muslims living under Christian kings. Initially they were allowed to live with the faith. The Christian kings who came to rule Muslim territories initially, are very much inspired by the Muslim civilization. Muslim civilization was one of the greatest achievements of humanity at that time. There were great achievements in Spain. When it comes to Christians, Muslims and Jews, all three faiths prospered. In Spain, they lived side by side, they shared knowledge with each other great libraries are produced great scholars are produced great scientists, philosophers, intellectuals, thinkers, imams theologian, the
theme of a green mobile reign, and the list goes on all sorts of subjects and fields of knowledge were taught in London last in Spain during the Muslim period, and Jews and Christians benefited immensely from this knowledge in Spain. So this was the golden age of not only Islam, but the golden age of the Jews also produced prospered under the domain of Islam for almost seven to 800 years. So long as the Muslims are ruling the Jews prospered. Every time the Christians took the land from the north, the Jews started to feel threatened. In fact, they were expelled from many places repeatedly. So the Jews found refuge with Muslims, Muslims are protecting the Jewish people in Spain for
hundreds of years. And these are the most civilized Jews in the world. There were the most sophisticated Jews in the world, and they found protection with Muslims. In fact, by having Buddha, one of the Jewish rabbis writes in 1180s.
Writing from Cordoba, when the city of Cordoba is still in Muslim hands, he writes that our living conditions, if not the same as Muslim living conditions, but even better in some cases, even better, our living conditions are in some cases even better. So when the Christians came in, there saw that the Muslims have established something amazing their libraries, the palaces, their civilization, their scholarship, the books, okay, the universities and institutions, they kept them as they were. In fact, they started to translate these books, these works into Latin, and they started to shift this knowledge to the north. Then slowly this attitude started to change when more and more land was
taken. 1250s onwards, there was only one strong hole left in Spain, Paul Renata, also known as Grenada, or Grenada. So Grenada lasted for nearly 200 and 50s. As the last stronghold of Islam, in a London was in Spain, and they kept a good relationship with Northern Christian territories. But Islam was very strong in Renata. Islam was the way of life. The law of Islam was still applied. scholars continue to flourish in Karmapa many books from the northern regions. Muslims have authored written transcribed, they ended up in Vannatta because we're not on the last stronghold. Many Muslims are actually emigrating to Karnataka from the north because this was Muslim territory. It
was easy for them to live when Muslims so will a very strong place and he was naturally protected. If you go to the city of Granada today, you will see just surrounded by mountains, it is right next to famous mountain range in Spain called Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada is very close to Granada and Renata as a city is naturally protected by the mountains, natural fortresses. That's why the Christian kingdoms from the North could not take it for so long. But then, in the 15th century, cut the long story short, fast forward. 1492 is the year actually 1482
Because this crusade against the state of Renata continued for 10 years for 10 years, two Christian States launched a crusade against the last stronghold of Islam in Spain.
And these two states were Aragon
and Castile. Aragon was ruled by a king called Ferdinand or Fernando and Castile was ruled by a queen called Isabella or Isabel. Both of them joined hands through marriage, and they decided that they will wipe out the Muslim faces from Amanda rose. Isabella was a die hard Crusader. She was a very staunch Catholic
And she wanted to remove any trace of Islam from alanda. Lowe's and she saw this as a mission of her life. Before she died, she wanted to achieve this. A crusade is launched and launched in 1482. Kenny is the Muslim from Granada
are resisting this onslaught, a massive coalition is attacking them. And they are resisting for 10 long years. There are battles taking place from Castle to Castle. They're taking fortresses, castles, cities, one after another, and then stopping
and most of them are doing their best to do something about it. And one of the reasons why this is taking place is the fall of Constantinople. In 1453, Sultan Mohammed Al Fatah has taken the city of Constantinople from the Christians
and Christian Europe or Christendom was shaken to the core. What we're going to do now the Turks are at our doorstep. And then shivers went down the spines of these Catholic Monarchs in Spain.
And pope, the pope was also shivering.
So they were in fear that if the Ottomans woke up one day, and realized Hold on a second, we have a Muslim ally in the Iberian Peninsula, and we can easily land armies because they control a lot of this coastal area. Hundreds of miles of Spanish coastal area was in the state of Grenada. They had this fear, so they wanted to wipe out this last stronghold 10 years, they started then,
they started to negotiate with the last ruler of Granada to surrender the city because they couldn't take it. They had besieged the city of Aranda for one year. And this was the largest army ever assembled against Muslims, in Spain
for Reconquista for the reconquest of the land from the Muslims. And this story is very disturbing online. If you go to Spain, which I did, just less than a week ago, I was in Spain. And it was a very emotional experience while like looking at those palaces, those Islamic sites, all the verses of the Quran on the walls. Some people say there was a fourth on your site of Islam it would have been cassava. And it's not an overstatement. It's not an overstatement. You go and look at the masjid of cassava. In London. You will see why it was the largest Masjid in the world. For some centuries. It was larger than much of the Haram much of the Navi and muscle AXA. It was the largest
machine in the world. The compounds still stands for for the last 1300 years, it has stood strong. The pillars are there, the arches are there.
The names of the people who carved the pillars of there,
you will see the names of the people who carved those pillars in the eighth century, Omar, Massaro, Mobarak these are the names I read myself.
And some of the pillars have written.
The word Lilla is inscribed on the pillar why the person wanted to carve the pillar for the sake of of I didn't want his name to be mentioned.
And it still stands 1490 Ferdinand and Isabella, they speak or negotiate with the last ruler of ornata, called Abu Abdullah, also known as Bob Dylan, in Western sources or Spanish sources for Bogdan it's a corruption of the word Abu Abu Abdullah. He was the last ruler.
So Abdullah Long story short, doesn't stand his ground. Despite the advice by his generals and his people to fight to death, about the law, lost hope, he knew there is no chance that they can resist any longer, long story short, he capitulate. He agrees to terms, and he hands over the keys to Ferdinand and Isabella.
And now there are hundreds of 1000s of Muslims living in ornata in the city of Granada, they're not aware of what's happening. They don't know. One day they wake up to Christian armies marching through the streets of Granada and Christians are ringing bells on the tallest buildings and Renata. They have fighting guns to announce they're coming. And they're singing songs of joy while the Muslims are watching in silence in fear. They don't know what's going to happen not to them. One of the reasons why Abu Abdullah capitulated was that he believed the promise of
The terms they agreed upon, were for the
Example. These are the terms that were agreed before he capitulated before he surrendered the city of Granada to Aragon and Castile, a coalition of these two kingdoms, or, or a coalition of a husband and a wife, both of whom happened to be the rulers of these two kingdoms Ferdinand and Isabella, he put these terms forward and they were readily accepted.
So before the surrender, these are the terms that were
that both great and small chip be perfectly secure in their persons, families and properties, that they should be allowed to continue in their dwellings and residences, whether in the city or the suburbs, or any other part of the country, that their laws should be preserved as they were before, and that no one should judge them except by though those same laws that their mosques and the religious endowments are pertaining to them should remain as they were in the times of Islam, that no Christian should enter the house of a Muslim or insult him in any way that no Christian or Jew holding public offices by the appointment of the late photon should be allowed to exercise his
functions or rule over them, that all Muslim captives taken during the siege or Granata. From whatever part of the country they might have come, but especially the nobles and chiefs mentioned in the agreement should be liberated, that such Muslim captives as might have escaped from the Christian masters, and taking refuge in Granada should not be surrendered. But that the Sultan should be bound to pay the price of such captives to the owners.
That all those who might choose to cross over to Africa should be allowed to take the departure within a certain time and be conveyed there in the Kings ships, and without any tax being imposed on them beyond the mere charge for passage.
So these are the terms. Why did I read all these terms to you so that you really realize why the Muslims surrendered the city and what was agreed upon, and they were expecting good treatment from these kings and queens. But Ferdinand and Isabella had no intention to keep these terms. They just wanted the territory. They wanted to occupy the last stronghold of Islam, in Spain,
and thence forth, they will do what they want, or what they wanted.
As soon as the city of Granada was taken, the Muslims were initially tolerated. They were initially tolerated, because the new rulers didn't want any disturbance. They could see that these are a very deeply religious people.
And we cannot possibly start changing them straightaway. And what happened when these monarchs took the city?
Firstly, there were two bishops that came in the Bishop of the city of Granada. Renata was appointed, and his name was
Hernando De Talavera. Hernando De Talavera, was appointed as the Bishop of the city of Parramatta, a Christian bishop. And his approach was to reason with Muslims preach the Catholic faith to them and tried to convince them about Catholicism.
Possibly not realizing, because many Christian clergy at the time were very ignorant of Islam and Muslims, possibly not realizing that these people they are trying to convert. Some of them are scholars of Christianity.
They have written books refuting Christianity.
So how are you going to convert someone like that someone who's writing books on Christianity? There are books upon books in the libraries of Ghana, Renata, hundreds of 1000s of volumes in the Arabic language, how are you going to convert them? So this is the Attitude Era.
Hernando De Chelly bar. Then what happens is another bigot who takes over from him. Okay, Arch Bishop of Toledo, the city of Toledo in the North. He has a different idea. He comes and joins Hernando De Talavera. He comes and joins them. His name is Francisco
Jimenez de ces Ross. Cisneros comes and he starts to arrest Muslim influential and tortures them starts because of the problem and forces Christianity. And he succeeds by torturing many influential Muslims. They might they convert to Islam under duress, under torture. And then he reports to the Pope. That I am I've converted hundreds
possibly 1000s of people by torturing to Christianity. So they are encouraged now. They want to change the policy, they want to push Muslims. So the policy changes. Muslims are now harassed in the city of Granada. Muslims are being told to do things they don't want to do. Muslims are being told to baptize
to live their faith.
This results in a reward in 1499, literally seven years after the city of Ramallah is taken as a reward. Okay, and this reward
goes on for another two years, until 15, or one when this revolt is crushed, and now, all gloves taken off, gloves taken off, okay, now, these Christian monarchs, they feel that they don't have to keep any treaties. They don't have to honor any treaties, any agreements were made with the Muslims. So this agreement I read, in front of you was thrown into the bed, it was cancelled because of the revolt. The vote was used as an excuse, even though the reward was caused by Catholic behavior against the Muslims and ornata. That wasn't considered and these terms were cancelled. And now
a choice was given to Muslims, explosion,
conversion or death, YouTube, you convert to Christianity, Catholicism, you get baptized, or you leave the country for another country, which wasn't easy at the time of course, or you die, which one is it?
Many In fact, the majority choose
They pretend to become Christians. These are the people who are known as the Moriscos.